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-   -   National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens? (http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=556452)

Jack21222 Dec3-11 11:22 AM

National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
The National Defense Authorization Act was passed in the Senate 93-7. In this bill, language was inserted that may be interpreted to mean the military can hold US citizens indefinitely without trial.

http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011...ary-detention/ Is a Wired editorial on the subject.

Wired links to several law blogs which are debating the issue. Law professor Robert Chesney says: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2011/12/d...f-us-citizens/
Quote:

This obviously rules out the idea of a mandatory military detention for US citizens. But note that it tends to rule in the idea that the baseline grant of detention authority in 1031 does in fact extend to citizens. Otherwise there would be no need for an exclusion for citizens in section 1032, since the 1032 category is a subset of the larger 1031 category.
Bolding mine.

Two questions for you all.

1) Should US citizens accused of terrorism be subject to military detention?

2) Does this bill create the possibility that US citizens be detained by the military?

pergradus Dec3-11 11:24 AM

Where is the Supreme Court when you need them?
 
http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011...ary-detention/

Is this what America is coming to?

Evo Dec3-11 11:59 AM

Re: Where is the Supreme Court when you need them?
 
Did you actually read the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012?

Go to page 426

15 Subtitle D—Detainee Matters
16 SEC. 1031. AFFIRMATION OF AUTHORITY OF THE ARMED
17 FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES TO DETAIN
18 COVERED PERSONS PURSUANT TO THE AU19
THORIZATION FOR USE OF MILITARY FORCE.

Sec. 1031.

Quote:

8 (b) APPLICABILITY TO UNITED STATES CITIZENS
9 AND LAWFUL RESIDENT ALIENS.—
10 (1) UNITED STATES CITIZENS.—The require
11 ment to detain a person in military custody under
12 this section does not extend to citizens of the United
13 States.
14 (2) LAWFUL RESIDENT ALIENS.—The require
ment to detain a person in military custody under
16 this section does not extend to a lawful resident
17 alien of the United States on the basis of conduct
18 taking place within the United States, except to the
19 extent permitted by the Constitution of the United
20 States.
Quote:

3 (b) COVERED PERSONS.—A covered person under
4 this section is any person as follows:
5 (1) A person who planned, authorized, com6
mitted, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred
7 on September 11, 2001, or harbored those respon8
sible for those attacks.
9 (2) A person who was a part of or substantially
10 supported al-Qaeda, the Taliban, or associated forces
11 that are engaged in hostilities against the United
12 States or its coalition partners, including any person
13 who has committed a belligerent act or has directly
14 supported such hostilities in aid of such enemy
15 forces.
16
(c) DISPOSITION UNDER LAW OF WAR.—The dis
17
position of a person under the law of war as described
18 in subsection (a) may include the following:
19 (1) Detention under the law of war without
20 trial until the end of the hostilities authorized by the
21 Authorization for Use of Military Force.
22 (2) Trial under chapter 47A of title 10, United
23 States Code (as amended by the Military Commis24
sions Act of 2009 (title XVIII of Public Law 111–
25 84)).
428
† S 1867 ES
1 (3) Transfer for trial by an alternative court or
2 competent tribunal having lawful jurisdiction.
3 (4) Transfer to the custody or control of the
4 person’s country of origin, any other foreign coun5
try, or any other foreign entity.
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-1...112s1867es.pdf

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 03:04 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
I never understand this legalese
Quote:

(d) CONSTRUCTION.—Nothing in this section is in-
7 tended to limit or expand the authority of the President
8 or the scope of the Authorization for Use of Military
9 Force.
10
Well then what's the purpose of putting it in there if it doesn't actually do anything?

I would also comment that even though it says the requirement that the armed forces hold terrorists does not extend to US citizens, it never says that the armed forces can't just choose to hold them anyway. The way the bill is laid out: The president has the authority to detain people who are terrorists with the military. The military must hold terrorists, except they aren't required to hold American citizens. But does the president still have the authority to hold them? It's never made clear. I probably just don't understand it very well

icosane Dec3-11 05:55 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
If they're such obvious terrorists why can't they be found guilty in a civilian court before being transferred to military custody?


Quote:

The Gestapo had the authority to investigate cases of treason, espionage, sabotage and criminal attacks on the Nazi Party and Germany. The basic Gestapo law passed by the government in 1936 gave the Gestapo carte blanche to operate without judicial oversight. The Gestapo was specifically exempted from responsibility to administrative courts, where citizens normally could sue the state to conform to laws.

cantormath Dec3-11 08:16 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
The ACLU says:
Don’t be confused by anyone claiming that the indefinite detention legislation does not apply to American citizens. It does. There is an exemption for American citizens from the mandatory detention requirement (...section 1032 of the bill), but no exemption for American citizens from the authorization to use the military to indefinitely detain people without charge or trial (section 1031 of the bill). So, the result is that, under the bill, the military has the power to indefinitely imprison American citizens, but it does not have to use its power unless ordered to do so.

http://www.aclu.org/blog/national-se...y-define-being

One of the authors of these provisions:
"1031, the statement of authority to detain, does apply to American citizens and it designates the world as the battlefield, including the homeland.” - Lindsey Graham

In this video, Lindsey Graham says, in no uncertain terms, 1031 of the NDAA applies to citizens...
http://www.c-spanvideo.org/appearance/600840428

Evo Dec3-11 10:11 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by cantormath (Post 3648988)
The ACLU says:
Don’t be confused by anyone claiming that the indefinite detention legislation does not apply to American citizens. It does. There is an exemption for American citizens from the mandatory detention requirement (...section 1032 of the bill), but no exemption for American citizens from the authorization to use the military to indefinitely detain people without charge or trial (section 1031 of the bill). So, the result is that, under the bill, the military has the power to indefinitely imprison American citizens, but it does not have to use its power unless ordered to do so.

http://www.aclu.org/blog/national-se...y-define-being

One of the authors of these provisions:
"1031, the statement of authority to detain, does apply to American citizens and it designates the world as the battlefield, including the homeland.” - Lindsey Graham

In this video, Lindsey Graham says, in no uncertain terms, 1031 of the NDAA applies to citizens...
http://www.c-spanvideo.org/appearance/600840428

It clearly says

Quote:

15 Subtitle D—Detainee Matters
16 SEC. 1031. AFFIRMATION OF AUTHORITY OF THE ARMED
17 FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES TO DETAIN
18 COVERED PERSONS PURSUANT TO THE AU19
THORIZATION FOR USE OF MILITARY FORCE.

COVERED PERSONS.—A covered person under
4 this section is any person as follows:
5 (1) A person who planned, authorized, com6
mitted, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred
7 on September 11, 2001, or harbored those respon8
sible for those attacks.
9 (2) A person who was a part of or substantially
10 supported al-Qaeda, the Taliban, or associated forces
11 that are engaged in hostilities against the United
12 States or its coalition partners, including any person
13 who has committed a belligerent act or has directly
14 supported such hostilities in aid of such enemy
15 forces.16
It's quite clear to whom it applies. It doesn't apply to normal citizens. Terrorists aren't considered normal citizens. Is anyone on this forum really concerned that they will be arrested as a terrorist? I know I'm not paranoid.

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 10:14 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Evo, where in the covered persons section does it say that American citizens are not covered?

Evo Dec3-11 10:30 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by Office_Shredder (Post 3649164)
Evo, where in the covered persons section does it say that American citizens are not covered?

Did you read the link I gave.

Quote:

(1) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in para25
graph (4), the Armed Forces of the United States
429
† S 1867 ES
1 shall hold a person described in paragraph (2) who
2 is captured in the course of hostilities authorized by
3 the Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public
4 Law 107–40) in military custody pending disposition
5 under the law of war.
6 (2) COVERED PERSONS.—The requirement in
7 paragraph (1) shall apply to any person whose de8
tention is authorized under section 1031 who is de9
termined—
10 (A) to be a member of, or part of, al-
11 Qaeda or an associated force that acts in co12
ordination with or pursuant to the direction of
13 al-Qaeda; and
14 (B) to have participated in the course of
15 planning or carrying out an attack or attempted
16 attack against the United States or its coalition
17 partners.
18 (3) DISPOSITION UNDER LAW OF WAR.—For
19 purposes of this subsection, the disposition of a per20
son under the law of war has the meaning given in
21 section 1031(c), except that no transfer otherwise
22 described in paragraph (4) of that section shall be
23 made unless consistent with the requirements of sec24
tion 1033.
430
† S 1867 ES
1 (4) WAIVER FOR NATIONAL SECURITY.—The
2 Secretary of Defense may, in consultation with the
3 Secretary of State and the Director of National In4
telligence, waive the requirement of paragraph (1) if
5 the Secretary submits to Congress a certification in
6 writing that such a waiver is in the national security
7 interests of the United States.
8 (b) APPLICABILITY TO UNITED STATES CITIZENS
9 AND LAWFUL RESIDENT ALIENS.—
10 (1) UNITED STATES CITIZENS.—The require11
ment to detain a person in military custody under
12 this section does not extend to citizens of the United
13 States.
14 (2) LAWFUL RESIDENT ALIENS.—The require15
ment to detain a person in military custody under
16 this section does not extend to a lawful resident
17 alien of the United States on the basis of conduct
18 taking place within the United States, except to the
19 extent permitted by the Constitution of the United
20 States.
That's the exemption for US Citizens against being detained in military custody.

Are you seeing anywhere that says specifically that US citizens will be detained in military custody? If so, please copy and paste it, I must be missing it.

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 10:32 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
The exemption says the military is not REQUIRED to hold American citizens. Where does it say that they aren't ALLOWED to?

Evo Dec3-11 10:40 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by Office_Shredder (Post 3649195)
The exemption says the military is not REQUIRED to hold American citizens. Where does it say that they aren't ALLOWED to?

Where does it say they're allowed to?

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 10:51 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Subsection (a) - the president may authorize the military to detain any person that is described as a covered person in subsection (b)

Subsection (b) describes people who take certain actions. Unless there is something preventing American citizens from taking those actions, it is patently clear that American citizens can fall under the description in subsection (b)

Evo Dec3-11 11:00 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by Office_Shredder (Post 3649220)
Subsection (a) - the president may authorize the military to detain any person that is described as a covered person in subsection (b)

Right COVERED PERSON

Quote:

6 (2) COVERED PERSONS.—The requirement in
7 paragraph (1) shall apply to any person whose de8
tention is authorized under section 1031 who is de9
termined—
10 (A) to be a member of, or part of, al-
11 Qaeda or an associated force that acts in co12
ordination with or pursuant to the direction of
13 al-Qaeda; and
14 (B) to have participated in the course of
15 planning or carrying out an attack or attempted
16 attack against the United States or its coalition
17 partners.
Quote:

Quote by Office Shredder
Subsection (b) describes people who take certain actions. Unless there is something preventing American citizens from taking those actions, it is patently clear that American citizens can fall under the description in subsection (b)

Where are you getting this nonsense? That's not in the Act. You'd have to be a terrorist to fall into the category of Covered Persons. This is nothing but fear mongering and conspiracy theory, IMO.

"people that take certain actions" seriously? That is seriously misleading. Some fear mongerer making it sound like it's nothing more than taking a walk in the park. Oh, but wait, if they tell the truth and say what it really says, people will dismiss them as being daft, IMO.

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 11:20 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
No, I'm not stating that they are trivial actions, or that anybody can get arrested under this. But if an American citizen is suspected of being a member of Al Qaeda, they can, it seems, be detained by the military until the end of hostilities (whenever that is), or transfer to another country's custody!

Evo Dec3-11 11:24 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by Office_Shredder (Post 3649257)
No, I'm not stating that they are trivial actions, or that anybody can get arrested under this. But if an American citizen is suspected of being a member of Al Qaeda, they can, it seems, be detained by the military until the end of hostilities (whenever that is), or transfer to another country's custody!

I would hope so. A US Citizen engaging in such conduct would be guilty of treason.

Office_Shredder Dec3-11 11:30 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Somehow, we've spent over 200 years without the President having the authority to ship suspected traitors to foreign countries with no trials. What makes these cases so special?

Evo Dec3-11 11:59 PM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
Quote:

Quote by Office_Shredder (Post 3649271)
Somehow, we've spent over 200 years without the President having the authority to ship suspected traitors to foreign countries with no trials. What makes these cases so special?

Here

Quote:

(4) Transfer to the custody or control of the
person’s country of origin, any other foreign coun5
try, or any other foreign entity.

except that no transfer otherwise
described in paragraph (4) of that section shall be
made unless consistent with the requirements of sec
tion 1033.

Sec. 1033. Requirements for certifications relating to the transfer of detainees at United States Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to
foreign countries and other foreign entities.

SEC. 1033. REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATIONS RELAT17
ING TO THE TRANSFER OF DETAINEES AT
18 UNITED STATES NAVAL STATION, GUANTA19
NAMO BAY, CUBA, TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES
20 AND OTHER FOREIGN ENTITIES.
21 (a) CERTIFICATION REQUIRED PRIOR TO TRANS22
FER.—
23 (1) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in para24
graph (2) and subsection (d), the Secretary of De25
fense may not use any amounts authorized to be ap433
† S 1867 ES
1 propriated or otherwise available to the Department
2 of Defense for fiscal year 2012 to transfer any indi3
vidual detained at Guantanamo to the custody or
4 control of the individual’s country of origin, any
5 other foreign country, or any other foreign entity
6 unless the Secretary submits to Congress the certifi7
cation described in subsection (b) not later than 30
8 days before the transfer of the individual.
(2) EXCEPTION.—Paragraph (1) shall not
10 apply to any action taken by the Secretary to trans11
fer any individual detained at Guantanamo to effec12
tuate—
13 (A) an order affecting the disposition of
14 the individual that is issued by a court or com15
petent tribunal of the United States having law16
ful jurisdiction (which the Secretary shall notify
17 Congress of promptly after issuance); or
18 (B) a pre-trial agreement entered in a mili19
tary commission case prior to the date of the
20 enactment of this Act.
21 (b) CERTIFICATION.—A certification described in this
22 subsection is a written certification made by the Secretary
23 of Defense, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State
24 and in consultation with the Director of National Intel25
ligence, that the government of the foreign country or the
434
† S 1867 ES
1 recognized leadership of the foreign entity to which the
2 individual detained at Guantanamo is to be transferred—
3 (1) is not a designated state sponsor of ter4
rorism or a designated foreign terrorist organization;
5 (2) maintains control over each detention facil6
ity in which the individual is to be detained if the
7 individual is to be housed in a detention facility;
8 (3) is not, as of the date of the certification,
9 facing a threat that is likely to substantially affect
10 its ability to exercise control over the individual;
11 (4) has taken or agreed to take effective actions
12 to ensure that the individual cannot take action to
13 threaten the United States, its citizens, or its allies
14 in the future;
15 (5) has taken or agreed to take such actions as
16 the Secretary of Defense determines are necessary to
17 ensure that the individual cannot engage or re18
engage in any terrorist activity; and
19 (6) has agreed to share with the United States
20 any information that—
21 (A) is related to the individual or any asso22
ciates of the individual; and
23 (B) could affect the security of the United
24 States, its citizens, or its allies.

Drakkith Dec4-11 05:48 AM

Re: National Defense Authorization Act: Military can detain US citizens?
 
FYI: Page 438

Quote:

(2) The term ‘‘individual detained at Guanta-
16 namo’’ means any individual located at United
17 States Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, as of
18 October 1, 2009, who—
19 (A) is not a citizen of the United States or
20 a member of the Armed Forces of the United
21 States; and
Doesn't look like a US citizen can be shipped anywhere.


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