
#1
Nov2811, 03:07 PM

P: 117

I would like to know some areas in condensed matter physics where nonlocal gaugeinvariant operator like Wilson loops make their appearance (as order parameter, for eg).
As an extension of above, I would also like to know some CMT applications of "surface operators" (2D extension of Wilson loops) that should couple to 1D defects. 


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