|Nov28-11, 03:07 PM||#1|
I would like to know some areas in condensed matter physics where non-local gauge-invariant operator like Wilson loops make their appearance (as order parameter, for eg).
As an extension of above, I would also like to know some CMT applications of "surface operators" (2D extension of Wilson loops) that should couple to 1D defects.
|order parameter, phase transition, surface operator, wilson loop|
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