# Bullet penetration

by oneamp
Tags: bullet, force, penetration
 P: 190 If F=ma, why does a bullet that's going a constant velocity, have enough force to penetrate an object?
 Mentor P: 16,488 It doesn't go at a constant velocity. A bullet decelerates very rapidly.
Mentor
P: 40,907
 Quote by oneamp If F=ma, why does a bullet that's going a constant velocity, have enough force to penetrate an object?
A moving bullet doesn't have 'force', it has momentum and energy. Under the right conditions, that energy may be sufficient to allow the bullet to penetrate an object. During the collision, forces are generated that slow down and deform the bullet.

And as DaleSpam stated, a bullet doesn't move with constant velocity. The air exerts a retarding force on it.

P: 190

## Bullet penetration

Thanks...
Mentor
P: 22,008
 Quote by Doc Al And as DaleSpam stated, a bullet doesn't move with constant velocity. The air exerts a retarding force on it.
I'm pretty sure that's not what he meant. I'm pretty sure that he meant that in the case being described by the OP - when the bullet hits something - it isn't going at a constant velocity, it is decelerating very rapidly, which involves a very large force.

...We've gotten almost this exact question several times in the past few days...
 P: 32 You could look at the bullet's behavior in a vacuum, in which case there would be no air friction. Then it would travel at a constant velocity, and when it hit something, some sort of impulse would occur, which involves forces over some period of time that change the momentum of both the bullet and whatever it's hitting, but conserve the total momentum. This is exactly what's happening in the air, too. It's traveling through a "vacuum" of space, that also happens to be filled with air molecules. So when the bullet runs into those molecules, the interaction I described above happens. Sorry if that just sounds like rambling, but I figured another take on it might help you glean some more insight! And if your question is specifically about how a thing moving at a constant velocity can deliver a force, then it's like the posters above were saying: when the bullet makes contact with anything else, it does accelerate (changes velocity) and that acceleration is the one in the F=ma equation, not its lack of acceleration BEFORE the impact. The bullet has no "force" if it isn't interacting with something. Hope that helps a bit!
Mentor
P: 40,907
 Quote by russ_watters I'm pretty sure that's not what he meant. I'm pretty sure that he meant that in the case being described by the OP - when the bullet hits something - it isn't going at a constant velocity, it is decelerating very rapidly, which involves a very large force. ...We've gotten almost this exact question several times in the past few days...
Ah, OK. I was wondering, since I would not have said that a bullet decellerates rapidly through the air.
P: 1
 Quote by oneamp If F=ma, why does a bullet that's going a constant velocity, have enough force to penetrate an object?
It penetrates not due to its velocity but by the deceleration provided by the body into which it penetrates. hence by action reaction force is exerted and the bullet penetrates

hope this helps.
if there is need of further comprehension please feel free to reply.

regards