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Electron kinetic energy, movement

by Salvador
Tags: electron, energy, kinetic, movement
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sophiecentaur
#37
Apr25-14, 03:59 AM
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Quote Quote by Salvador View Post
But you need a series connection for an ammeter not a connection at each end?

I appreciate the discussion but I still don't know why there is resistance for current in a medium made up entirely out of electrons like in a glass tube filled with electron gas?
In a vacuum at first there is infinite resistance right? and when the E field is strong enough a current path out of cathode electrons can be formed and resistance drops to whatever resistance the electron beam has but why it then has a resistance at all ? if there is vacuum and nothing in the way for the electrons? Not to account for the resistance of the hot cathode , just the electron beam itself.
If there is any finite Potential Drop across a device and there is finite current flowing then there must be a value for V/I (i.e what we call Resistance). There is, arguably, a problem in measuring what the Potential Drop is, between different points over the length of the beam but, if the field is linear, the PD would be proportional to the distance along the beam (potential divider equation).
I don't think there is a problem with the fact that introducing electrons into the vacuum would alter the measured resistance. A light sensitive resistor changes resistance when light falling on the LDR alters the number of free electrons. In the case of an electron tube of course, the V/I relationship will be highly non-linear but that doesn't alter the principle.
Salvador
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Apr25-14, 05:19 AM
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ok, but apart from low temperature =low kinetic energy of electrons , what else makes a superconductors electrons so resistanceless?
Drakkith
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Apr25-14, 06:09 AM
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Quote Quote by Salvador View Post
ok, but apart from low temperature =low kinetic energy of electrons , what else makes a superconductors electrons so resistanceless?
See the following articles:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooper_pair
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bcs_theory
UltrafastPED
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Apr25-14, 06:48 AM
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Quote Quote by sophiecentaur View Post
My initial point was that Ohm's Law is not synonymous with the expression R = V/I and that people who know better should really be using the right terminology, in the interests of those who are trying to find out about it.
So you disagree with this lesson from "All About Circuits"?
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_2/6.html

"Ohm's Law is not very useful for analyzing the behavior of components like these where resistance varies with voltage and current. Some have even suggested that "Ohm's Law" should be demoted from the status of a "Law" because it is not universal. It might be more accurate to call the equation (R=E/I) a definition of resistance, befitting of a certain class of materials under a narrow range of conditions."


And for just for fun, read this long discussion on the same topic; all of the arguments are hashed over multiple times.

Conclusion: if you define resistance as whatever the V/I curve says for that (V,I) then you have an "Ohm's law" that is a tautology.

However if we consider only the linear behavior (regions of V/I curves of constant slope), then Ohm's law describes the behavior well within this region of applicability - it is an empirical law for which experimental results will be consistent with the predictions.
Salvador
#41
Apr25-14, 09:23 AM
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If an electron beam in a glass tube much like in CRT would be put into extremely low temperature , would it then too become superconducting like various metals when under low temperatures?

Wikipedia states that...
In a normal conductor, an electric current may be visualized as a fluid of electrons moving across a heavy ionic lattice. The electrons are constantly colliding with the ions in the lattice, and during each collision some of the energy carried by the current is absorbed by the lattice and converted into heat, which is essentially the vibrational kinetic energy of the lattice ions. As a result, the energy carried by the current is constantly being dissipated. This is the phenomenon of electrical resistance.
in a vacuum once a current path has formed , the electrons flow but they have nothing in their way unlike in a metal conductor so what is the reason for them to experience resistance still?
Drakkith
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Apr25-14, 09:42 AM
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Quote Quote by Salvador View Post
If an electron beam in a glass tube much like in CRT would be put into extremely low temperature , would it then too become superconducting like various metals when under low temperatures?
The term "superconducting" doesn't apply to free particles traveling through space/vacuum. It specifically applies to the lack of electrical resistance in conductors. (A vacuum is not a conductor, it is actually an insulator)
nsaspook
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Apr25-14, 10:28 AM
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Quote Quote by Salvador View Post
Wikipedia states that...


in a vacuum once a current path has formed , the electrons flow but they have nothing in their way unlike in a metal conductor so what is the reason for them to experience resistance still?
The electrons in a vacuum can accelerate (in a specific direction instead of very fast random velocities with slow drift speeds like in conductors) to near light speed easily. (~10% of c in a small o-scope CRT with 2kv acceleration voltage) Electrons have a rest mass so it takes energy (work) to make them move faster. So we can think of electrical resistance in part as a indicator how much work is being used to accelerate them (along with the beam EM fields themselves ) to those speeds and the kinetic energy in each electron at that speed (2keV for the o-scope)
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu...ectric/ev.html

So we have a static beam with kinetic energy filled electrons moving at high speed, what do you think happens when we start switching that beam on/off, changing it's density and moving it around to display information? We then also have energy (a small amount usually) in EM waves that can radiate out and be detected from considerable distances.
EMR
sophiecentaur
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Apr25-14, 03:01 PM
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Quote Quote by UltrafastPED View Post
So you disagree with this lesson from "All About Circuits"?
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_2/6.html

"Ohm's Law is not very useful for analyzing the behavior of components like these where resistance varies with voltage and current. Some have even suggested that "Ohm's Law" should be demoted from the status of a "Law" because it is not universal. It might be more accurate to call the equation (R=E/I) a definition of resistance, befitting of a certain class of materials under a narrow range of conditions."


And for just for fun, read this long discussion on the same topic; all of the arguments are hashed over multiple times.

Conclusion: if you define resistance as whatever the V/I curve says for that (V,I) then you have an "Ohm's law" that is a tautology.

However if we consider only the linear behavior (regions of V/I curves of constant slope), then Ohm's law describes the behavior well within this region of applicability - it is an empirical law for which experimental results will be consistent with the predictions.
I would disagree with that lesson because it fails to include Temperature in its implied definition of Ohm's Law. To my mind that is sloppy. I agree that it is not a "Law" but a description of behaviour (I already wrote as much, earlier on).

You are not responding to my comments about that transresistance thing you introduced. Do you still think you are 'right' about it? I can't see how you can introduce four terminal devices in your view of resistance. The measurement method is not relevant here because you could produce a resistance of, say 1kΩ, from an appropriately shaped piece of conductor, without ever needing to connect it up to your four terminals. R doesn't care how it's measured.


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