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Building an electromagnet...

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rexdez
#1
Oct23-13, 01:08 PM
P: 8
Hi, I decided to do a little weekend project and build an electromagnet. I read online to use copper wire and wrap it around an iron core. I was wondering If I could use anything other than iron, also, I hope you guys can tell me where I can commonly find the parts necessary for this project? Thanks, I hope you guys can help.

P.S. I know how to make an electromagnet, just wondering what materials to use and where I can find them commonly. I have a small model but it's extremely weak due to the thick insulation on the wire.
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Windadct
#2
Oct23-13, 01:34 PM
P: 553
As for a core - it does not need to be pure iron, a bolt or large nail is the common item ( as long as it is magnetic - i.e. a magnet will be drawn to it- Stainless / aluminum will not work). If you can find a thin sleeve material,that the core fits into nicely - you can wind on that and also use as a solenoid type assembly.

Look for / use magnet wire, it is coated with a thin enamel and allows the windings to be closer together.
Bobbywhy
#3
Oct23-13, 08:45 PM
PF Gold
P: 1,881
rexdez, Welcome to Physics Forums!

Since you say you "know how to make an electromagnet", but wonder about what materials to use for the core, I suggest that you do some "homework" or studying of the physics involved. Wikipedia is one place you might begin. Don't overlook the references at the bottom.

"In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. In other words, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeab...ectromagnetism)

Do let us know how your project/experiment progresses.
Bobbywhy

rexdez
#4
Oct24-13, 11:11 AM
P: 8
Building an electromagnet...

I have started to scrap small motors and such for wires, one wire I keep finding is this copper wire coated with a red substance. Does anyone have any idea what it is? I suspect it may be a chemical insulation but I have no assumptions based on fact. Also, I was wondering where I could find larger amounts of wire. I may go look around this weekend for my parts.
davenn
#5
Oct24-13, 08:52 PM
Sci Advisor
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P: 2,486
Quote Quote by rexdez View Post
I have started to scrap small motors and such for wires, one wire I keep finding is this copper wire coated with a red substance. Does anyone have any idea what it is? I suspect it may be a chemical insulation but I have no assumptions based on fact. Also, I was wondering where I could find larger amounts of wire. I may go look around this weekend for my parts.
that's the enamel coating that windact spoke of in post #2

red and brown colours are common for enamel

Dave
rexdez
#6
Oct24-13, 10:42 PM
P: 8
I have a small collection of wires and two small scale electromagnets that don't seem to work, can you tell me what I may have done wrong? Also, I heard speakers have an abundance of good wires in them, is this true, and is it worth it?
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DrZoidberg
#7
Oct24-13, 11:18 PM
P: 388
At the ends of the wire you need to remove the enamel e.g. with sandpaper, before you connect it to the battery. Also, do you have a multimeter to measure the resistance of the wire? It could help with making the magnet as strong as possible.
rexdez
#8
Oct25-13, 10:11 AM
P: 8
I am going to sand down the wires later today, but I do not have a multimeter. Does Radioshack/Best Buy carry those?
rexdez
#9
Oct25-13, 10:15 AM
P: 8
Quote Quote by rexdez View Post
I am going to sand down the wires later today, but I do not have a multimeter. Does Radioshack/Best Buy carry those?
Nevermind, I found some, but I don't really know how to use one and how the resistance correlates with the strength of the magnet. I am doing to this project to learn more about this topic and to pass time.
Windadct
#10
Oct25-13, 11:07 AM
P: 553
It is a good way to tinker with the subject. Yes Radio Shack will have a basic meter, digital multi meter (DMM) - look out for the VERY cheap ones, they may take a wierd battery, but you do not need much for these types of experiments.

What are you using for power, a battery?

If you are able measure the resistance (with the DMM) the expected current that will flow will be the Voltage (of the battery(s) ) divided by the resistance. I (current) = V / R.

Another way to get the enamel off is carefully scrape off with a razor knife.

Lastly - a very sensitive indicator - so see if the electromagnet is working is a compass - useful for when you are just starting out.

good luck.
rexdez
#11
Oct25-13, 11:16 AM
P: 8
I found some cheap magnet wire on radio-shacks website, and I was wondering if this is the right stuff, since it seems unusually cheap. Here is a link to the product: http://www.radioshack.com/product/in...ductId=2036277
DrZoidberg
#12
Oct25-13, 12:17 PM
P: 388
The cost of the wire depends mostly on the amount of copper.
For example those two products cost nearly the same because they both have about 1/2 pound of copper in them even though the length is very different.
http://www.radioshack.com/product/in...uctId=21983566
http://www.radioshack.com/product/in...uctId=21983606

If you know the voltage and current you want to use and the volume of the copper coil, you can calculate what wire size you need to get a coil with the right resistance.
rexdez
#13
Oct26-13, 07:03 PM
P: 8
I just bought the 315 ft thing of cord and a spdt switch. I also just found a vacuum and now it's a pile of plastic with no motor :). I was wondering if I can use it for any projects or just scrap it for wire?
meBigGuy
#14
Oct27-13, 01:01 AM
P: 1,074
Wire is cheap. Don't scrap the motor without good reason. 15 years from now you may be glad you kept it when you use it to crack some walnuts.
meBigGuy
#15
Oct27-13, 01:18 AM
P: 1,074
Looking at your kit, you have 3 wire sizes.
22ga copper, 0.161 ohms /10ft
26ga 0.408 ohms/10ft
30ga 1.032 ohms per 10 ft
(from http://www.cirris.com/testing/resistance/wire.html)

So, 1.5V D cell and 30 ft of #30 would be about 0.5amps (calculate it). #30 will heat to 80C at 2 amps. (look it up). You can do different calculations. An ohm meter will allow you to measure resistance directly, and an ammeter will tell you the current through the coil. (multimeters have both modes)

As for the electromagnet strength, you can calculate it based on current and number of turns. http://www.daycounter.com/Calculator...lculator.phtml
rexdez
#16
Oct28-13, 09:07 AM
P: 8
Well, I sawed the motor open to reveal a ton of wire. Although, it's held together by a very tight nut, and it just spins when I try to use a ratchet on it. I was wondering if anyone had any techniques on how to remove this because I can't seem to find any links anywhere.


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