Jet Engine: Turbine Blades and Temperature

by _Mayday_
 Admin P: 21,880 Off the top of my head, Inconel 718 and 738 (738LC) are candidates, but I think there are more advanced alloys which are now used. This might be of interest - http://criepi.denken.or.jp/en/e_publ.../98seika11.pdf CMSX4 is a more modern alloy. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/62...scription.html Table 1. Composition of Ni based superalloy CMSX4 Element Ni Co Cr Al Ti Ta Mo W Re Hf wt% 61.7 9.0 6.5 5.6 1.0 6.5 0.6 6.0 3.0 0.1 at% 63.7 9.3 7.6 12.6 1.3 2.2 0.4 2.0 1.0 0.03 from - http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/avai...ms_etd2004.pdf (8.3 MB) use to download Historically - High-Purity Chromium Metal: Supply Issues for Gas-Turbine Superalloys (1995) http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?re...d=9248&page=22 Those should be good to get one started.
 Sci Advisor P: 5,095 Inco and Hastelloy are the two big older ones that come to mind. CMSX-4 is widely used because of the Rhenium content. However, along with material is the manufacturing process used. Most hot section blades are going to be single crystal formulations. The 2000°F number is a good general number to go with as far as TIT numbers go. http://www.c-mgroup.com/spec_sheets/CMSX_4.htm
 P: 816 Jet Engine: Turbine Blades and Temperature Thank you very much for all of your help. Astronuc, thanks for that link to the table, there were other parts of the paper that answered a few questions thanks. When considering which materials to use, what environmental factors would you need to include. I guess the high temperatures would be one, but what else would the material have to survive?
 P: 816 Thanks Archer! Your help is much appreciated. Would anyone have like a time line of information on the 'evolution' of the turbine blade, with young's modulus and other material properties?
 P: 816 How have the materials of the turbine blade changed over time in terms of their properties. For example I would think that the melting point of the material would have to have increased...
 P: 35 Both material and design has.... Improved in handling higher temperatures. Improved in strength. Improved in efficiency. Decreased in cost. Those sort of things.
P: 5,095
 Quote by _Mayday_ How have the materials of the turbine blade changed over time in terms of their properties. For example I would think that the melting point of the material would have to have increased...
Like I said in my post above, probably the biggest advancement has been in single crystal alloys. The properties most effected by material changes are strength (obviously) but also fatigue and creep resistance.
 P: 816 I'm struggling to find any statistics showing what you have said, it seems to be hard to find information on this, as alot of the hits direct me to Wind Turbines. From the links provided I have gained some idea of what is in the blades these days, but finding evolution like statistics that show a general trend are somewhat more difficult.
 Admin P: 21,880 Mayday, there may be a survey paper - somewhere - but it's probably buried out there. Anyway, TMS (The Metallurgical Society) has a period conference on Superalloys, which covers materials for gas (combustion) turbines. Meanwhile, try this - http://www.eprictcenter.com/infocent...aper02_msw.pdf
 P: 816 That's great Astro, really nice that. Figures like that are exactly what I am after, thank you very much .
 P: 816 If you do find that survey let me know, otherwise thank you for all your help!
 Admin P: 21,880 Here is a GE paper on their Advanced Gas Turbine Materials and Coatings http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/pro...s/ger3569g.pdf Cartech produces several superalloys http://www.cartech.com/news/wr_age_h...peralloys.html Special Metals, High-Performance Alloys for aircraft, land-based & marine gas turbines http://www.specialmetals.com/documen...20turbines.pdf Special Metals Corp, PRODUCT HANDBOOK OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE ALLOYS http://www.specialmetals.com/documen...20Part%201.pdf NASA Report NASA Contractor Report 174639 Literature Survey on Oxidations and Fatigue Lives at Elevated Temperatures http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/ca...1984012606.pdf
 P: 816 Astronuc, those links are amazing thank you so much!
 P: 816 Hey Again. Does anyone have any data that would tell me which materials where used in the turbine blades over time? Almost like an evolution of materials? I've found this incredibly difficult, and also with these materials I would like to be able compare things like tensile strength, melting points etc. Any help would be great. Thanks!
P: 21,880
Hey Mayday, see this related thread - "Chromium use in Gas Turbine Engines"

The NIST article by Reed et al gives some trends. The actual history is hard to find and the current materials would be proprietary, i.e. not available to the public. Materials, processes and component geometry/design can give a particular vendor a commerical advantage if they can operate more efficiently and reliably, so that information is often considered proprietary or 'trade secret'.

Here's a site thnat maybe of interest -
http://www.ul.ie/elements/Issue6/Gas...e%20Blades.htm - perhaps one can contact them.

Welding material, gas turbine blade or nozzle and a method of repairing a gas turbine blade or nozzle
http://www.freshpatents.com/Welding-...0070054147.php

(one can go to USPTO) and download the patents free - the patents may contain details of base metal (alloy) composition.

You might try to contact Rolls Royce or one of their suppliers, Doncasters, about materials.

Doncasters wins Rolls Royce Trent 800 contract
http://www.airframer.com/news_story.html?release=570
 MELBOURNE, UK: Doncasters, the leading global manufacturer of precision components and assemblies for the aerospace industry, has won a contract worth €40m to manufacture low pressure (LP) directionally solidified (DS) investment cast blades for the Rolls-Royce Trent 800® engine. The Trent 800® is used in the long-range, wide-body and twin-engined Boeing 777 airliner. The blades will be manufactured at Doncasters' Precision Casting facility in Bochum, Germany, a world class site dedicated to high volume cast superalloy blade and vane airfoils for high-temperature, tight tolerance applications for aerospace and industrial gas turbines. Over \$25m has been invested over recent years to make the site unique in its field in the manufacture of leading edge equiaxed, directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) castings. Bochum has its own manufacturing facilities for the production of superalloys and ceramic cores – capabilities include hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), heat treatment and world-leading liquid metal cooling technology (LMC). As all key manufacturing and supply chain processes are in-house, the site also offers complete supply chain management and the capacity to deliver large volume manufacturing to customers' tight and often changing schedules.
 Admin P: 21,880 Here is an interesting dissertation - http://hdl.handle.net/1853/22637 - A Parametric Physics Based Creep Life Prediction Approach to Gas Turbine Blade Conceptual Design Download the pdf. It contains a lot of good information. See particularly page 44 (67 of 347 in the pdf) and figure 22, and the following section 1.5.2 Materials. Also see - APPENDIX C - MATERIAL DATABASE METALLIC COMPOSITIONS The list of references is excellent!

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