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Complex series: Circle of convergence

by Niles
Tags: circle, complex, convergence, series
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Niles
#1
May30-09, 10:06 AM
P: 1,863
1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data
Hi all.

Lets say I have a complex power series given by

[tex]
\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_nz^n,
[/tex]

where z is a complex number and c is a complex constant. Inside its circle of convergence, I can differentiate it leading to

[tex]
\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_nnz^{n-1} = \sum_{n=0}^\infty (n+1)c_{n+1}nz^{n}.
[/tex]

If I want to find the circle of convergence for this series, then I can use the ratio test

[tex]
\frac{1}{R} = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } \left| {\frac{{a_{n + 1} }}{{a_n }}} \right|.
[/tex]

I have two questions for this:

Question #1: Does the ratio test give me the same answer regardless of I substitute e.g. n -> n+3? I.e., is it correct that

[tex]
\mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } \left| {\frac{{a_{n + 1} }}{{a_n }}} \right| = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } \left| {\frac{{a_{n + 3} }}{{a_{n + 2} }}} \right|.
[/tex]

Personally, I think it does not matter, because we let n go to infinity.

Question #2: Does the ratio test only work for power series that go from n=0 to infinity, or do they also work if n start at e.g. 1 or -1?


Thank you very much in advance.

Best regards,
Niles.
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snipez90
#2
May30-09, 11:50 AM
P: 1,105
Well the ratio test is typically derived from comparison to a geometric series. Moreover, one way to derive the comparison test is based on the monotone convergence theorem applied to partial sums. So I think you're right on both counts since only long term behavior matters. Especially for question 2, remember that including or excluding a finite number of terms in an infinite series does not affect convergence.
tiny-tim
#3
May30-09, 01:09 PM
Sci Advisor
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Thanks
tiny-tim's Avatar
P: 26,151
Hi Niles!
Quote Quote by Niles View Post
Question #1: Does the ratio test give me the same answer regardless of I substitute e.g. n -> n+3? I.e., is it correct that

[tex]
\mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } \left| {\frac{{a_{n + 1} }}{{a_n }}} \right| = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty } \left| {\frac{{a_{n + 3} }}{{a_{n + 2} }}} \right|.
[/tex]

Personally, I think it does not matter, because we let n go to infinity.

Question #2: Does the ratio test only work for power series that go from n=0 to infinity, or do they also work if n start at e.g. 1 or -1?
Your intuitive suspicions are completely correct

limiting behaviour is only affected "near" the limit

what happens at the other end doesn't matter!

So yes, to both #1 and #2.


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