Palestinian Genes Show Arab, Jewish, European and Black-African Ancestry


by Bilal
Tags: ancestry, arab, blackafrican, european, genes, jewish, palestinian
Bilal
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#1
Jan1-05, 11:36 AM
P: 407
Palestinian Genes Show Arab, Jewish, European and Black-African Ancestry

12/16/2004

By David Storobin, Esq.
A study by the University of Chicago found that Arab populations, including Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, and Bedouin, have at least some sub-Saharan African genes. Non-Arabs from the region, including Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, Georgians, and Jews did not have any African roots. [1] A possible explanation is the proximity of the Arabian peninsula to the Black African nations. This conclusion is favored by the fact that Yemenite Arabs have 35% Black African genes in their mtDNA (which passes through the mother), while others have less. Yemen, of course, is very close geographically to several Black African nations. Other Arabs, especially those far away from the Arabian peninsula, have as little as 10% African blood in their mtDNA. As such, it is possible that the African gene was merely diluted by the introduction of non-Arab (and non-African) genes to the pool when Arabs began to conquer other Middle East people after the rise of Islam. The "real" Arabs -- those who have Arab ancestors stretching beyond the last 1,400 years – are actually 35% Black in their mtDNA. These Arabs are from the Arabian peninsula.[2]

Other populations that are now called ‘Arabs’ became Arabized through intermarriage and adoption of the Arabic language and culture. These people are partially Arab and partially descendants of the nations that lived in their region prior to the rise of the Muslim faith. Just as their "Arab gene" was diluted by mixing with local genes, so too the 35% of the mtDNA that is Black African was diluted and reduced to around 10%.

The reduction of the Black genes from 35% to around 10% also suggests that the large majority (around 70%) of genes belonging to the Arabs outside the Arabian peninsula come from the local nations. The claim is supported by the historical fact that the original Arab population was relatively small and could not have populated a region stretching from Iraq to Morocco with such density, no matter the birthrate (and, in any event, where did the original populations go?). Both historically and genetically, it is almost definite that the Arab population intermarried with locals, including Palestinians, upon their conquest.

Palestinians, however, differ from other Arabs in some ways. As the web site for Harper’s Magazine reported, one study showed that Jews and Palestinians have common ancestry that is so recent that it is highly likely that at least some of the Palestinian blood actually descends from Jews. [3] Another study by New York University confirmed a remarkable similarity between Jewish and Palestinian genes. "Jews and Arabs are all really children of Abraham," said Dr. Harry Ostrer, director of the Human Genetics Program at New York University School of Medicine, who worked on the study. "And all have preserved their Middle Eastern genetic roots over 4,000 years. [4]

According to several other studies, Palestinians and Jews are genetically closer to each other than either is to the Arabs of Arabia or to Europeans [5]. A study of congenital deafness identified an allele limited to Palestinian and Jews of Ashkenazi origin (those who lived in Europe in recent centuries), suggesting a common origin. Furthermore, Y-chromosome polymorphism is very similar among Palestinians and Sephardic Jews. [6]. While current studies show a lot of similarities and genetic closeness may be used to confirm claims of both sides to Israel/Palesitne, but right now, results are incomplete and are subject to much interpretation. [7] The above statements are based on the currently available information, but may be questioned by future studies.

There is a significant Christian population among Palestinian Arabs, leading some to claim that at least part of the Palestinian population (the Christians) descended from the original followers of Christ, who were, of course, Jews (they were Jews ethnically, even if they didn't follow Judaism). Despite extensive research, I have not been able to find any scientific studies supporting this claim.

Furthermore, the fact that there is joint heritage of 2,000-3,000 years ago does not mean that new genes were not introduced into the Palestinian genetic pool. For one, genes from the Arabian peninsula were introduced after the spread of Islam. As part of the Arabian genes, African genes were introduced, as described above.

Several studies have shown that Palestinians have a larger than usual (among Arabs) European blood. This may be explained by the Crusades and the establishment of a Crusader Kingdom in medieval times. It is highly likely that at least some percentage of the Palestinian population mixed with Europeans, either through intermarriage or rape of Arab women by Europeans, as well as European women by Arabs. Additionally, cities with significant Palestinian populations, including Bethlehem, Nazareth and Jerusalem, are sites of many Christian holy landmarks, which draw a large number of European tourists. This, too, may have played a role in the disproportionate amount of European genes found among Palestinians.

In more recent times, among Palestinian Muslims, there is a significant number of people who are recent immigrants from other Arab states. Official records of the Ottoman Empire (colonial power until WWI) and Britain (colonial power from the 1920's to 1948) show that there was very significant Islamic immigration into holy land. In some years, there were more Muslim new-comers than Jewish.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



SOURCES



1. From Wikipedia online encyclopedia available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian, which cited: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJH...71/024771.html

2. Ibid.

From Wikipedia online encyclopedia available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian, which cited: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...uids=12743242; http://foundationstone.com.au/HtmlSu...Genetics.html; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=8838913; http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstrac...AC0894DA404482

3.Harper’s Magazine Web Site. Reported on 11/21/2004 at: http://www.harpers.org/Genetics.html

4. http://www.trinicenter.com/more/Jewsarabs.htm

5. From Wikipedia online encyclopedia available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian, which cited: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=11935342

6. Ibid.

7. Wikipedia online encyclopedia available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian

David Storobin, Esq. is a New York lawyer who received Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from Rutgers University School of Law. His Master's Thesis (M.A. - Comparative Politics) deals with Extremist Movements in the Middle East and the historical causes for the rise of fundamentalism. Mr. Storobin's book "The Root Cause: The Rise of Fundamentalist Islam and its Threat to the World" will be published in 2005.
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Bilal
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#2
Jan1-05, 11:45 AM
P: 407
This scientific study is another proof that the current nation of Palestine has ancient roots in Palestine (including Jews roots). Some Arab came in 7th century and mixed with native people to create the current Palestinian nation.

All nations lived in Palestine through ages (Kannite , Greek, Jew, Roman, Egyptian , Crusaders , Kurds, Turks, Persian , Africa ..) mixed completely and ‘’Arabised’’ in the 7th century.

I am not surprise that we use in local Arabic Palestinian dialect Kannite and some another words which not exist in other Arab dialects.

People can change their religion and language, but they keep their native genes.
selfAdjoint
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#3
Jan3-05, 03:45 PM
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Quote Quote by Your quoted text
The above statements are based on the currently available information, but may be questioned by future studies
Too bad you weren't as careful as he authors.

Gonzolo
#4
Jan4-05, 12:12 PM
P: n/a

Palestinian Genes Show Arab, Jewish, European and Black-African Ancestry


Quote Quote by Bilal
This scientific study is another proof that the current nation of Palestine has ancient roots in Palestine (including Jews roots).
As far as I know, Palestine is not and has never been an official nation. Using terms such as "scientific" and "proof" does not bury the fact. That said, I don't question common ancestry, but I don't see the point of highlighting it either. Note however that I also don't read posts that are more than 10-20 lines.
Bilal
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#5
Jan4-05, 12:25 PM
P: 407
I born and live in Palestine.... my house was built before 650 years. Is that means I have no right to exist because your majesty claim that Palestinian are not official nation!!

Who are authorized to check whether other nations are official or, not?
Germany was existed in the first time before 150 years (the same for Italy) is that means German and Italian were not exist before that?

In fact every group of people live in certain geographical area with some common characteristics can form nation: Just few years ago, part of people (700000 people) decided to be independent Nation and separate from Indonesia.... Most of world countries and UN supported them, and they succeeded to create their State for the first time in history - State and Nation of East Timor.

Beside that, Most of USSR nations never exist before, just after the collapse of communism in 1989, all these nations decided to establish independent States.

Quote Quote by Gonzolo
As far as I know, Palestine is not and has never been an official nation. Using terms such as "scientific" and "proof" does not bury the fact. That said, I don't question common ancestry, but I don't see the point of highlighting it either. Note however that I also don't read posts that are more than 10-20 lines.
Bilal
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#6
Jan4-05, 12:45 PM
P: 407
Another source :


http://www.barzan.com/kevin_brook.htm

((In 2001, a team of Israeli, German, and Indian scientists discovered that the majority of Jews around the world are closely related to the Kurdish people -- more closely than they are to the Semitic-speaking Arabs or any other population that was tested.))

((A previous study by Ariella Oppenheim and her colleagues, published in Human Genetics in December 2000, showed that about 70 percent of Jewish paternal ancestries and about 82 percent of Palestinian Arabs share the same chromosomal pool. The geneticists asserted that this might support the claim that Palestinian Arabs descend in part from Judeans who converted to Islam. With their closer relationship to Jews, the Palestinian Arabs are distinctive from other Arab groups, such as Syrians, Lebanese, Saudis, and Iraqis, who have less of a connection to Jews."))


Quote Quote by selfAdjoint
Too bad you weren't as careful as he authors.
Gonzolo
#7
Jan4-05, 12:50 PM
P: n/a
Majesty? Who me? or Britain in pre-1950 I hope. I am not saying you don't have a right to exist as a person, of course you do, don't accuse me of that. As far as I understand, there are plans to make official a Palestinian nation, which I agree with. It is the UN that does not consider a Palestinian nation yet (not sure why) Of course it would be ironic if the UN officialised an independant Palestinian nation, that would then build itself an army and try to destroy Israel, which was first authorized by UN.

"Most of world countries and UN supported them"

Yes, that is surely the prime requirement. As far as I know, everybody does want Palestinian people to have their nation, we are just not there yet. It probably scares Israel.
Bilal
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#8
Jan4-05, 01:17 PM
P: 407
In fact UN recognized the Palestinian as nation; also they allowed PLO (Palestinian Liberation Origination) to be Permanent Observer in the UN since 1975. (the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations.)
http://www.palestine-un.org/

UN also recognized to create State of native people of Palestine on 45% of historical part parallel with creation of Israel.

The UN did not recognize Palestinian State (not nation) because the problem of the borders...

For example I have Palestinian Passport and I can travel everywhere, it is also recognized by Israel.

Question of Palestine – UN site
http://www.un.org/Depts/dpa/qpal/

At last all world countries support the ''State of Palestine” except USA and Israel. UN can do nothing, thanks to the 80 ''USA'' Vetoes against the will of the rest of the world.


Quote Quote by Gonzolo
Majesty? Who me? or Britain in pre-1950 I hope. I am not saying you don't have a right to exist as a person, of course you do, don't accuse me of that. As far as I understand, there are plans to make official a Palestinian nation, which I agree with. It is the UN that does not consider a Palestinian nation yet (not sure why) Of course it would be ironic if the UN officialised an independant Palestinian nation, that would then build itself an army and try to destroy Israel, which was first authorized by UN.

"Most of world countries and UN supported them"

Yes, that is surely the prime requirement. As far as I know, everybody does want Palestinian people to have their nation, we are just not there yet. It probably scares Israel.
russ_watters
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#9
Jan4-05, 02:56 PM
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Quote Quote by Bilal
I born and live in Palestine.... my house was built before 650 years. Is that means I have no right to exist because your majesty claim that Palestinian are not official nation!!
No one said anything of the sort. The point is that ancient land claims have little relevance today. Most pieces of land in the world have changed-hands so many times, a half-dozen or more peoples have claims (all equally legitimate: ie, irrelevant) to them.

What you describe is nationalism and its what caused wars up until WWII. Letting go of nationalism is what has allowed the nations of the West to live in peace with each other since then: the longest period of such peace in the history of the world. The arabs should learn from the example.
In fact UN recognized the Palestinian as nation...
Yes, the UN tried to actually create the country of Palestine at the same time it created Israel. Palestine would exist today if the surrounding Arab nations had allowed it to.
At last all world countries support the ''State of Palestine” except USA and Israel. UN can do nothing, thanks to the 80 ''USA'' Vetoes against the will of the rest of the world.
Both the US and Israel did then and do now support the existence of Palestine. Had the arab neighbors of Israel supported the existence of Israel when both were created, Palestine would exist today.

HERE is a good timeline of US government quotes and actions regarding the creation of Israel/Palestine in the 1930s and 40s. I know you won't like it because it completely ignores the situation on the ground, which was a muddled mess of people killing each other. But real, permanent solutions to problems like this can only come from nations negotiating as nations on behalf of their people. The response of the Arab nations to the situation is clear: on the day after Israel became Israel, the surrounding Arab nations attacked. Had they not, Palestine would likely be a country today.
scarecrow
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#10
Jan12-05, 01:04 AM
P: 148
Doesn't every human have some African ancestry? Humans originated in Africa, but our genes have been so diluted through the years. It is the climate where we live that changed our physical appearances and characteristics. That explains why their are many colors of humans -- more sun --> darker skin, or colder environment --> more hair, high altitudes --> larger lungs, etc.
pelastration
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#11
Jan12-05, 06:54 AM
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Quote Quote by scarecrow
Doesn't every human have some African ancestry? Humans originated in Africa, but our genes have been so diluted through the years. It is the climate where we live that changed our physical appearances and characteristics. That explains why their are many colors of humans -- more sun --> darker skin, or colder environment --> more hair, high altitudes --> larger lungs, etc.
see:http://www.duerinck.com/migrate.html
pelastration
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#12
Jan12-05, 07:54 AM
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I went over some old files. Here are more links.

More: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1502189.stm

Interview with Spencer Wells: http://www.indiantelevision.com/special/y2k2/ncg-t.htm

Conclusion: There is no superiour race, whatever some books may say.
Gonzolo
#13
Jan12-05, 09:29 AM
P: n/a
Quote Quote by pelastration
Conclusion: There is no superiour race, whatever some books may say.
That is an elementary fact. The word "superior" doesn't even have meaning in this context.
Nereid
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#14
Jan12-05, 10:05 AM
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Not to mention that A may think there are but 3 'races', and B 203, while C feels that whole concept is meaningless.
scarecrow
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#15
Jan12-05, 10:53 AM
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Quote Quote by http://www.duerinck.com/migrate.html
African Eve theory states that all humans share a common African ancestor.
Like I stated before.
But I'm confused after briefly reading the website.....do all humans descend from an African ancestry? Since its just a theory, how many people believe in it?

So If this theory is correct (and I do believe it), then I'm not surprised at all about this thread........(even though it is interesting to me because my parents are palestinian).
Nereid
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Jan12-05, 11:01 AM
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Quote Quote by scarecrow
Like I stated before.
But I'm confused after briefly reading the website.....do all humans descend from an African ancestry? Since its just a theory, how many people believe in it?
All the genetic data collected to date is consistent with a common African ancestry. While the DNA of every six billion plus person hasn't been analysed, AFAIK at least one individual from most population groups has had their DNA analysed (if only the mitochondrial DNA). This makes it extremely unlikely that there is any other ancestor.

Am not sure what you mean when you write 'just a theory'; that's ALL THERE IS in science (well, there are much more tentative things, like hypotheses). Even QED, which is consistent with good experimental results to 12 (16?) decimal places, is still 'just a theory'.
selfAdjoint
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#17
Jan12-05, 11:03 AM
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The African theory has some good evidence for it. For instance both mitochondrial and Y-chromosome evidence show that the human population once (or more than once) went through a bottleneck of only a few score individuals. And there is much more genetic variation in Africa than in any other continent, which is most simply explained by supposing humans have lived there longest.
scarecrow
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#18
Jan12-05, 11:08 AM
P: 148
Theories are just that, you can either believe them or not, but since it hasn't been disproven, I take it (as well as several others) that this theory to be fact, considering the overwhelming data.


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