Newton's third law of motion is specifically describing forces. If I am at rest and a particle hits me with a force, \mathbf{\vec{F}}, then it feels a force exerted by me equal to -\mathbf{\vec{F}}.
If you are approaching a light source, then you can compute the shift in frequency of light by
\nu_O=\nu_S\sqrt{\frac{1-v/c}{1+v/c}}
where \nu_O is the frequency seen by the observer, \nu_S is the frequency emitted by the source of the light, c is the speed of light, and v is the speed...