Hello:
I was under the impression that gauge symmetry was a property of the Lagrange density. Here is the Lagrangian for EM written out in its components:
\begin{align*}
\mathcal{L}_{EM} &= J\cdot A +\frac{1}{2}\left(B^2-E^2\right) \quad eq.~1\\
&=\rho \phi - Jx Ax - Jy Ay - Jz Az \\...
Hello:
The gauge symmetry of the standard model is written in authoritative places like wikipedia :-) as U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3). This would have 12 elements in its Lie algebra corresponding to one photon, W+, W- and W0 or Z, and the 8 gluons. I recall reading discussions that such a...
Hello:
I will try to meet the terms of the 8 guidelines.
1. The behavior of light is explained with a rank 1 field theory, the
Maxwell equations. Gravity is explained with a rank 2 field theory,
general relativity. The two can be combined in one Lagrange density,
but they are not in...