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  1. sweetser

    Gauge symmetry in EM by inspection

    Hello: I was under the impression that gauge symmetry was a property of the Lagrange density. Here is the Lagrangian for EM written out in its components: \begin{align*} \mathcal{L}_{EM} &= J\cdot A +\frac{1}{2}\left(B^2-E^2\right) \quad eq.~1\\ &=\rho \phi - Jx Ax - Jy Ay - Jz Az \\...
  2. sweetser

    Exact Gauge Symmetry of the Standard Model

    Hello: The gauge symmetry of the standard model is written in authoritative places like wikipedia :-) as U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3). This would have 12 elements in its Lie algebra corresponding to one photon, W+, W- and W0 or Z, and the 8 gluons. I recall reading discussions that such a...
  3. sweetser

    Unifying Gravity and EM

    Hello: I will try to meet the terms of the 8 guidelines. 1. The behavior of light is explained with a rank 1 field theory, the Maxwell equations. Gravity is explained with a rank 2 field theory, general relativity. The two can be combined in one Lagrange density, but they are not in...