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  1. M

    Fuel Cells; PEMFC; Cause of Proton Movement

    Yes, thanks. That is eventually what I found in a paper on another website. The movement is in accordance with an electrochemical gradient. The electric gradient is caused by what you say. The "chemical" gradient refers to the fact that random motion of the atoms tends towards equal...
  2. M

    Fuel Cells; PEMFC; Cause of Proton Movement

    Lately i've started learning about fuel cells, particularly proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), and a fairly basic question that has been bugging me is: Since the cathode is positive, it is clear why the electrons flow through the load and to the cathode, but why do the...
  3. M

    How quickly would Mars loose its atmosphere?

    An alternative explanation could be that Mars lost its atmosphere slowly back then only because it had a magnetic field that partially shielded it from the solar wind. Since Mars no longer has such a magnetic field, it follows that nowadays it could loose its atmosphere relatively quickly...
  4. M

    How quickly would Mars loose its atmosphere?

    Besides low gravity and high doses of radiation, one of the more intractable difficulties in terraforming Mars is that if we build its atmosphere back up, then presumably it would lose it again via the same mechanisms it lost it the first time (ie solar wind, warmth, and low gravity)...
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    Numerically Solving a Second Order Differential Equation Using C

    I only made this mistake when presenting the problem here, and not in the code itself, but when presenting the differential equation here, I miswrote it as: x''-u(b^2 + x^2)x'+x=0 . Actually it is: x''-u(b^2 - x^2)x'+x=0 For additional clarity, the problem is presented as follows...
  6. M

    Numerically Solving a Second Order Differential Equation Using C

    Homework Statement The Second Order Differential Equation is: x''-u(b^2 + x^2)x'+x=0 Initial Conditions are: x(0)=1 x'(0)=0 It is to be numerically solved for 0<=t<=500. The specific numerical method to be used isn't specified, but it must be programmed into c. As a means to check the...
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