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  1. K

    I Maximally entangled two-qubit Bell states

    Thank you.. For instance, in phi state for both (+ and -), in the first term Alice would get 0 and Bob 0 as well for both (+,-). Actually, it is not clear in terms of definition and the way of measurement, as both look similar. Thanks.
  2. K

    I Maximally entangled two-qubit Bell states

    Hello, In the four maximally entangled two-qubit Bell states, what is the difference between the first and the second states, similarly, the difference between the third and the fourth states. What the different in signs mean( +,-)...
  3. K

    I Randomised phase of laser

    Hi, What does it mean when we say that the in the case of absence of a phase reference, the laser would produce a Poissonian mixture of number states?.. I got confused actually between the meaning of the phase in classical sense and quantum in this regard. Regards
  4. K

    I Projective measurement and correlations: examples

    How to delete my post and question here please?
  5. K

    I Projective measurement and correlations: examples

    Hello, Can anybody help me to understand the solved example as attached here. How can I follow that using dirac, bra notations. Regards
  6. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Hi, see the following paragraph please, when it says that Alice modulate the succseesive pulse by 0 and pi, what that physically means in terms of quantum mechanics. Alice sends a sequence of coherent states with the same intensity, and modulates the phase between successive pulses between 0 to...
  7. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Thanks Elemental, For the single photons I got the idea, but does the relative phase here for coherent states mean the same concept as in the classic presentation of EM.
  8. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Hi, Many thanks.. I've uploaded here two figures that I don't understand well in this regard. In figure 1, what is the function of α and Φ for the phase modulator( I mean the physical meaning in quanum optics). What does it mean when a coherent pulse or a single photn pass through the phase...
  9. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Thank you so much, it seems that I need to read more about interefernce, but what that means when we say that the relative phase is 0 , π, π/2 or 3π/2. could you kindly suggest any refernce (books, papers) besides your informative explanation. Best regards
  10. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Hi, Thanks, the system that i'm intereted in is phase encoding between two time-bins. At Alice site, she prepares coherent pulses which undergo interference using interferometer before reaching to Bob. My question here in case of using single photons or coherent states, what is the physical...
  11. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Thanks, I am trying to cmpare the phase of the classical wave and in QM. When we say that a coherent state has a phase shift of π or 3π/2 by employing MZI, what that means?
  12. K

    Phase of coherent states and single photons

    Hello I am confused and I cant figure out what is meant by phase when it comes to quantum mechanics for single photons and coherent states as I am a new to this field. Best regards
  13. K

    Qubits: complex scalers

    Hi, Does anybody know why we have complex scalers to represent qubits..I mean why they are not real numbers. Thanks
  14. K

    Orbital Angular Momentum

    Hi, Thanks for your comment .. This is the first post, do I need to change the category?.. I wanna use OAM to improve the key rate generation rate in QKD, so I wanna know how to start the modelling. Regards
  15. K

    Orbital Angular Momentum

    Hi, I need any good books or articles about the mathematical analysis and modelling of orbital angular momentum Regards
  16. K

    White LED

    thanks,,as it is known for continuous spectrum that resulted from incandescent lamp,Planck law is employed to plot the spectral power distribution of such a source, but for the white LED I could not find a way to do the same as it is not treated as a black body radiator...thanks
  17. K

    White LED

    what I meant that the resulted spectrum of the combination ..does it have IR-radiation in that spectrum
  18. K

    White LED

    Hi there, how one can compute the spectral power distribution of white LED ,i,e like black body radiator that has a formula of calculation.. regards
  19. K

    Reflection coefficient calculation

    Thanks,I have got another question please, for LED that is used in visible communication, Does the bandwidth sharply be between (400-700)nm or could extend to IR-region like incandescent lamps... Many thanks
  20. K

    Reflection coefficient calculation

    thank u so much , actually just a normal room ,but I don't know what material is it? I mean ,it could be any kind of office wall.Do you mean,if I can get the reflection of the material ,that would be the reflection coefficient...
  21. K

    Reflection coefficient calculation

    Hi,thanks for reply, OK, am simulating a system inside a room of (3x3x2.5)m^3 , the only source is a bulb light fixed on the ceiling,so I would like to calculate the reflection coefficient of the walls which then used in Lambertian formula of DC channel gain...
  22. K

    Reflection coefficient calculation

    Thanks for your reply, i mean part of the light reflected and a part get absorbed as infrared light is used as a source..
  23. K

    Reflection coefficient calculation

    Hi there, I am wondering how to calculate the reflection coefficient of walls upon incident light versus wavelengths,, thanks
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