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    I Symmetry associated with current conservation

    As I understand it for every symmetry there is associated a conserved quantity - so for time symmetry there is energy conservation. I understand as well that charge conservation is associated with a 'mathematical' local symmetry - something turning in a mathematical space at a point so to...
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    I Poynting vector - uniform vs accelerated charge

    I am trying to understand why an accelerating charge emits radiation/electromagnetic waves but a uniformly moving one does not. I saw one video on Youtube where it seemed that it was explained by the fact that with a uniformly moving charge the Poynting vector was pointing 'in to the volume' -...
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    I Duration of electromagnetic disturbance

    Let us say I have a moving charge. At each point x,y,z in it's path from understanding there is a transverse electromagnetic wave being radiated (could also be viewed as a photon). The electric field at any point x1,y1,z1 in the path is disturbed. The moving charge does the same thing all...
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    B Changing electric field generating magnetic field

    I would very much appreciate a clarification on what is meant by a changing electric field in the context of statements such as 'a changing electric field creates a changing magnetic field'. My question is does the electric field actually need to reverse as a lot of examples show where two...
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    I Do electromagnetic waves have potential and kinetic energy

    Do electromagnetic waves have potential and kinetic energy like springs, strings, etc. If so how are they calculated, inter-related? What is the total energy? Are the energies fluctuating over time? I am a physics hobbyist so generally the first answers should come with the least mathematics...
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    I Angular sector

    In this article the following is written: "Consider now an angular sector A(x, r, θ, v) inside a small disk B(x, r) of small angular aperture θ (measured in radians) centred around some direction v (a unit vector) emanating from x; this...
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    I Gauge Symmetry

    I have reviewed the various posts on gauge symmetry in particular this one which is now closed. In this post there is the following link: This is a good read. However, there is some clarification I need. The...
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    I Spacetime moving faster than speed of light?

    I was watching a seminar on black holes and one of the participants threw out as an aside that spacetime could travel faster than the speed of light - so within spacetime nothing could travel faster than spacetime but spacetime itself however was not bound by this rule so it could move faster...
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    I Information for black hole region in surface surrounding it

    At one point I read there was the concern that a black hole could lose bits of information. Then a theory arose that showed that all the bits in a black hole were to be found on the surface of the black hole. Thus if there were let's say 1000 particles in a black hole each of which could be...
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    I Black hole - event horizon and Hawking radiation

    I have come across the following multi-explanations of how Hawking radiation/evaporation of a black hole happens: Particle/anti-particle story: particle/antiparticle pair creation from vacuum near the event get torn apart - one going into black hole, the other away; in some of these...
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    I Black hole - between horizon and singularity

    What occupies the space between a black hole's event horizon and the singularity? Stuff hurtling to the singularity? Vacuum?
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    I Black hole radiation

    A couple of points I need clarification on. Objects outside of the event horizon feel the pull of the black hole - so the closer the object is to the event horizon but still outside of it the more pull the object feels to be sucked into the event horizon? Is that the correct view? As far...
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    I Quantum bits information lost in black holes

    I have just started googling/youtubeing black holes. One point made repeatedly discussed is the loss of information in black holes. In particular quantum bits. What I have not yet found is very much explanation of what these potentially lost bits might be. So what I would like to know is...
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    B Weak nuclear force - circumstances in which it is manifested

    I have a glass of water at room temperature. The electromagnetic force is at play between the electrons and nucleus of the atoms, the strong nuclear force is at play holding the nucleus together, the force of gravity weak as it may be is at play between the various particles - electrons, quarks...
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    I Weak force - only free neutrons decay?

    Reading this article - there is a statement - "A free neutron will decay with a half-life of about 10.3 minutes but it is stable if combined into a nucleus." So is it only free neutrons that decay into protons? In...
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    Hermitian operators = values of variables

    I have read in different places something like the following: Hermitian operators have real eigenvalues Hermitian operators/their eigenvalues are the observables in Quantum Mechanics e.g energy I am not sure what this means physically. Let us say I have a Hermitian operator operating on a...
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    Guage symmetry - invariance under arbitrary phase change

    As I understand it the heart of gauge symmetry is that I can change the phase at different points different amounts and the Lagrangian/action is unchanged. What I am not clear on is whether the changes I can make are completely arbitrary - I can make any change I want at any point - or whether...
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    Meaning of X as in SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1)

    I am wondering what the meaning of X is in formulations such as SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1). The symbol is used a lot but I've never seen it explained. I'm assuming it's not any kind of multiplication but ... Clarification would be appreciated.