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    How do scientists find out what something contains?

    How do scientists find out what something contains, like a liquid, or a mushy ball of crushed leafs. Do they do a bunch of tests, or do they put it through a machine which then gives them the answer. Also how do they know that what they`ve got after an reaction is actually what the wanted and...
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    Synthesis of aspirin, confused noob

    Hi, Take a look at this synthesis of aspirin. Because I am noob, please bare with me. On the top there you can see how the acetic anhydride gets attacked by the H plus ion. I cant understand why the h plus ion gets bonded there. I`ve been trying to find the answer to this question for...
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    Why do acids donate protons?

    Title says it all. I don`t get it.
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    Does Sulfuric acid donate both of it H+ protons?

    H2SO4 + H2O -> HSO4- + H3O+ A question by a noob. I get the fact that water can act as an acid and as a base. The oxygen "pulls" the hydrogen+ ion away from the sulfuric acid oxygen hydrogen bond an gets one itself and becomes positively charged, therefore a hydronium. However, I wonder...
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    Why is cyanide writted as CN- when the negative charge is on carbon?

    The Title pretty much sums it up. Why is it written like that when it is clear that the carbon must be the one with the negative charge?
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    What is the purpose of resonance structures?

    I`ve started reading up and practically making various resonance structures of various molecules. Though in the book I am reading I have only been subsituted with the information that it can be very neccessary for chemical mechanics later on in the book. Is this correct? Also, the book doesn`t...
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    What role do the 2 lone electron pairs in H2O have?

    What role do the 2 lone electron pairs have in a h2o molecule when hydrogen and oxygen bond covalently. I`ve understood that the oxygen side of the h2o molecule is negative because it is more electronegative and the elctrons spend more time on that "side". While the hydrogen "side" is more...
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    What happens to atoms that havent reacted in a chemical reaction?

    So let`s say that we have a chemical reaction with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, but we`ve got very little hydrogen, and very much oxygen. As we pour these two liquids together they react with on another and create water. However since there was a very much bigger amount of oxygen than...
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    A hypothetical question about seeing an atom with the naked eye

    This is only hypothetical, but bare with me. I did some searching on the interweb and found out that a drop of water has about: 1.67 × 10^21 molecules (Source: Also, the amount of protons and neutrons that can...