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    Paradox with elementary submodels of the constructible tower

    This is an argument I thought up after a class on combinatrical properties of the model \textbf{L}. Our course is about set theory, not logic, so this paradox desn't seem relevant in its context. Can you help me figure out where I got it wrong? The constructible heirarchy of sets is a series...
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    Temperature distribution of neutrino background radiation

    Hello. I wonder - is the CνB energy curve expected to follow the Boltzmann distribution? In the 2 seconds neutrinos were in equilibrium with matter, did they bounce off enough to even out the energy? I'm asking because a back-of-envelope computation gives cosmic neutrino speeds of ~0.09c...
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    Dark energy <=> negative energy?

    Sorry if this sounds a bit mixed up. When I was growing up, in the late 1990's, popular science books about cosmology use to describe the average mass-energy density of the universe, especially comparing it to the critical density. Those books used to say that visible matter gives too-low...
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    Conservation of energy after measurement

    Is conservation of energy, momentum, and other physical properties absolutely true in quantum mechanics, or only on average? As an example, think of a single particle in free space. Measure its energy, and write down the result. Then look at where it is, and measure the energy again. You'll...
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    Fundamental properties of subatomic particles

    A physics hobbyist such as myself, trying to understand high-energy experiments from the recent decades, often hears about symmetries in the model, conservation laws, Feynman diagrams and so on. These are all intuitive properties but very far from a basic world view of "what happens...