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    Partition function

    first of all id like to thank you for taking time to answer my question. I have attached the 1st page of the original paper. well here we are dealing with lnZ since, later to find the average energy we have to take partial derivative of lnZ with respect to β.
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    Partition function

    in the paper written by Jose Torres-Hernandez in 1984 titled as : "Photon mass and blackbody radiation" in the first page he writes for the partition function: lnZ=λ \sum_{normal modes} e^{-βε_l} = \frac{-λπ}{2} \int_{ε_0}^∞ n^2 ln(1-e^{-βε}) \frac{dn}{dε}dε i really don't understand...
  3. S

    Research In Theoretical Physics

    thank you very much tia89. I really appreciate your help. I think I will go for dark matter and dark energy since a lot of researches are being done in these fields recently.
  4. S

    Research In Theoretical Physics

    Hi guys! I'm a third year physics student. and I'm studying mathematical physics and particle physics. I thought of doing some research in the field of theoretical physics but the problem is I don't know which subject is most appropriate for me to do research in. I will appreciate it if someone...
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