I didnt understand the question. The magnitude is 2(pie)/wavelength. I get 78500 rad/cm which is pretty wrong as guess. Where would angle come into picture?
Ref: https://www.millersville.edu/physics/experiments/062/index.php
Shouldn't direction be like i + j + k ?
So will it be like:
|k|cos30...
Is the graph Hamilton and Eulerian?
The website says the graph is Hamilton and Eulerian but I think it's wrong.
Ref: https://scanftree.com/Graph-Theory/Eulerian-and-Hamiltonian-Graphs
There is no path that covers all paths only once. Any help? I think the graph is drawn wrongly.
Hi,
In seebeck effect:
Ref:
Once the red region is hot, the electrons and holes move toward cooler region i.e. bottom. So there is a positive potential toward right side of cold side and negative region toward left side of cold side. So why can't the electrons and holes combine here only...
Ref: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Design-and-Simulation-of-Different-Wireless-Power-Baroi-Isla m/dc19ecfde904964704777ab5adef96d5d6846f1f
I couldn't find the working of this circuit so I guess it would be like:
Initially transistor is OFF, so the current flows through Base, and...
From reference:
https://www.elprocus.com/phase-locked-loop-operating-principle-and-applications/
It says that the PD produces an output that is DC level proportional to (Fi - Fo) (I think it has typo. It should be '-' but they've printed '+').
Then the low pass filter removes the high...
Hi,
I am studying Wireless Energy Transfer and I find Royer Oscillator in that.
Ref: Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royer_oscillator
I am unable to understand how it works.
I found a diagram here:
Ref: https://www.smps.us/inverters.html
It says that (quoted from webstie):
In practice...
Our professor is teaching this circuit and she mentioned there are 24 transistors. But I counted and it comes out to be 22
T1 to T4 needs 2 (transistor) * 4 = 8 transistors
Each inverter needs 2 transistors. so 7 inverters need 14 transistors.
total 22 transistors.
Unless we're also creating a...
A is given waveform, we have to use circuits to get B and C waveform. For B we can use an And Gate with 2 inputs, X and Y. X is buffered (to get some delay) and is fed to Y input of And Gate. So we'll get waveform B.
But I don't know how to get C waveform. The question is that even if I extend...
Ref: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/pnjun2.html
Hyperphysics Asstr
Why does the band diagram shift up or down when I apply potential? Why does it shift down when positive potential is applied? Professor said it's because electron has negative charge and so we consider...
I'm not sure how will this oscillator work. Assume A is low, so B will be high and the capacitor will charge through B-C- 2Mohm.
Now even D has gone high, so A will be high and B will be low and C will discharge. I'm not sure how the voltage divider rule across RC will take into effect.
I found...
My book has this diagram:
Book: Digital Integrated Circuits by Jan M. Rabaey
I don't understand the purpose of using the three Inverters. It's not mentioned in the book, nor could I find anything on the internet.
First for logic-1 at output: So I get that for Logic 1, the OR-2 Gate must have one input has logic-1.
Case1: Upper OR-Input is 1 of second OR Gate. So the longest path is Inv-1, Or-1, Or-2. Delay is 9ns.
Case2: For lower input to be 1, the 'And-2' output has to be 1, and for that Or-1 output...
I made a table using excel as:
D is output. Like this I get Output frequency is same as input frequency. But I'm not sure if this is correct.
PS: I'm aware I'm posting many questions, but I got interview exams coming up in August. Companies are gonna come to university for recruitment and thus...
I use the voltage divider rule as output voltage = Voltage across R1 = 5 * ( 0.5 / (0.5 + 20) )
This comes as 0.122 V
I'm not sure why they've mentioned I leakage and does 0-state have any impact on answer.
Ref: Digital Integrated Circuits by Jan M. Rabaey
I have trouble understanding two things:
1) Why will x charge to Vdd - Vtn1 and why not Vdd?
2) If x in left charges to Vdd - Vtn1, then in right also it would charge to Vdd - Vtn1... so Vy would charge to Vdd - Vtn1 - Vtn2... so why have they...
Here is question: Find voltage across R3
options:
10V
11V
5V
2V
Attempt: No current flows through Opamp, so 1mA flows through R3, this gives voltage across R3 = 1ma * 1K = 1V.
But that is not in option.
Where am I wrong? No current flows inside or outside opamp, right?
Hi Everyone,
I'm doing research in Implanted Devices in Human Body (Sensors, Hearing Aid, Pacemaker) for my college course.
I've started with FitBit that uses the PPG Principle. But I'm struggling to understand why the FitBit uses both Green and IR LED whereas the sensor at the receiving end is...
Hi,
I'm struggling to understand how channel length modulation takes place in mosfet. The books n internet said that as drain side is positive, there is less potential difference between positive gate and positive drain, while there is more potential difference between positive gate and zero...
Hi,
I'm studying MOSCAP at university and there are 3 regions based on Vg.
Accumulation
Depletion
Inversion
For P substrate the surface potential increases as I increase the gate voltage (positive). The books say that at Vg = threshold voltage the surface potential is maximum. But why does it...
Hi,
I'm studying MOSFET in detail and I'm struggling to understand how the channel is formed in case of SOI Mosfet.
For normal mosfet
A positive Gate to source voltage attracts electrons from P substrate towards Gate and thus a channel is formed.
But in case of SOI
There is a buried Oxide...
Hi,
We're studying Contact resistance and the professor has given assignments on contact resistance. But I cant find any books to refer to. Here is one sample question:
The books I'm referring to are ones by Donald Neaman, SMZ, Kanos. but none of them have any mention of 1-d or 2-d model for...
Hi,
I'm studying MOSFET and the book says that when N-channel mosfet has negative or positive gate voltage, the energy band diagram will shift. I don't understand why Efm shifts.
Now when Vg is negative the Efm shifts upwards, Why? And when later when Vf is positive the Efm also shifts again? I...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Current cannot change suddenly through inductor unless input is impulse voltage source.
The Attempt at a Solution
since input is DC source we have i(0+) = i(0-) so we have di/dt at t = 0+ is 0.
Is it correct? Book has mentioned answer as B which is weird...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Solve using limits. Function is continuous if it's graph is continous throughout. here the (x-1) term gets cancelled in numerator and denominator. So we have a continuous graph of (x+1).
The Attempt at a Solution
The (x-1) term gets cancelled from...
Hi,
Sorry for this weird question. My computer crashed and also the notes in it. I had a book wherein I'd written all the formulae. There is one formula in notes of Power System.
X = cube root of R.
I remember there was a website that even had its derivation, but I don't have the bookmarks...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
First use equations to find out number of boys n number of girls.
Then use probability concepts.
The Attempt at a Solution
Number of boys + number of girls = 12
Boys = Girls + 2
So we get Boys = 7, girls = 5.
Select more girls than boys in a group of 3...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Find laplace of x(t) and h(t)
Multiply the laplaced values to get Y(s)
Find inverse laplace to get y(t)
The Attempt at a Solution
In book the circled term isn't there. Why does that go away?
Book gets y(t) as
In laplace why does the e5t term go away?
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Scaling property and property of dual. I got the answer.
The Attempt at a Solution
I got the answer using scaling property and using property of dual.
x1(t)---> X2(W)----(another fourier transform)--->2(3.14) x1(-w)
But I think the final answer should be...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
Three phase half controlled bridge rectifier can have 3 pules at output or 6 pulses depending on firing angle.
The Attempt at a Solution
Ripple frequency is m times the input frequency where m is number of pulses.
It can be 3 or 6. So why have they...