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  1. coktail

    Homebrewing beer and galvanic corrosion

    I’ve started home brewing beer recently, and I’m assembling equipment for my first 5 gallon batch. The technique I’ll be using requires me to put grains into a nylon bag and then steep that bag of grains in hot water (approx 160°), much like a giant teabag. The trick is that the bag cannot touch...
  2. coktail

    Symmetrical motion and resolving differences in FoR

    Hi All, Long time no post! I've asked a highly-related question to the one I'm about to ask here, but there's a specific aspect of it that I'd love your input on. I understand that if two observers in the same location were to move away from each other symmetrically at a significant...
  3. coktail

    Black, reflected and emitted

    Hi all. I have a couple questions regarding the “color” black. First question, regarding reflected light: Would a perfectly black object with no reflectiveness to its surface absorb 100% of the light that hits it? If so, would it activate no rods/cones on the observer’s retina whatsoever...
  4. coktail

    Uncertainty Principal: Limit of measurement, or the nature of things

    Hi! I found a few old threads lying around regarding this, such as this one, but I thought I'd start a new one asking the question in my own way. So here goes. Is the uncertainty described by the Uncertainty Principal a result of the fact that by measuring something we affect it, or a...
  5. coktail

    Natural vs. Synthetic

    Hi there, First time posting in Chemistry, so go easy on me. I'm wondering if there's any fundamental difference between synthetic and naturally-occurring compounds. By "fundamental" I mean some physical/chemical difference besides the process in which they came to be. Related to this...
  6. coktail

    Avatar not appearing on mobile

    Hi All, I've noticed that my avatar/profile image does not appear on mobile, but I do see the avatars for some other users. This applies to the official PF app, as well as apps such as Tapatalk. Anybody have any insight into this? Thanks, coktail
  7. coktail

    Are descriptions of relative velocity arbitrary?

    Is how we choose to describe relative velocity arbitrary? For example, say I am floating in space with only Ball A and Ball B for reference. Ball A is moving away from me at 10mph, and Ball B at 20mph. I could say that I am stationary, and Ball A and Ball B are traveling at 10 and 20mph...
  8. coktail

    Length contraction occurs infront of AND behind you?

    If I am moving through space, things in front of me contract in the direction parallel to my movement. Does this also occur to objects behind me? For example, I look behind me, would things be contracted? As always, thanks.
  9. coktail

    FM radio waves and radio stations

    Hi there. I have a (hopefully) quick question here. FM radio stations transmit their information by manipulating the frequency of radio waves, but each radio station is assigned to a specific frequency. If the frequency broadcasted by a radio station is constantly changing (to transmit info)...
  10. coktail

    Elementary/irreducible particles

    Hi! I'm wondering what the current mainstream thinking is on irreducible/elementary particles. Is the world made up of tiny, discrete little objects? ...or... Is the world made up of pure energy that moves in patterns that appear to be little particles? ...or... Neither/both/something...
  11. coktail

    Length contraction of space with multiple reference frames

    My understanding is that as I move, from my FoR all objects and space itself (according to Einstein) contract along the direction of my movement. This length contraction occurs for all space and objects in front of me for an infinite distance. Furthermore, relative motion is relative, and the...
  12. coktail

    Movement relative to light

    This is partially a question and partially me explaining my understanding of c, frames of reference, and relative motion to see if I have it straight. So, c (the speed of light) is always the same when measured by an observer regardless of the intertial reference frame from which it is...
  13. coktail

    Infinite variables over infinite time

    Hi There, This is my first post in Math, and I can't read a formula beyond arithmetic, so please bear with me. I've always been curious about infinity and how it affects probability. I was reading on Wikipedia about the Infinite Monkey Theorem, and understand (I think) that with a finite...
  14. coktail

    Time Dilation: Object slowing down vs Subject speeding up

    Why is it that when describing time dilation, we say that the object (the thing observed) slows down relative to the subject (the observer), rather than vice versa? If the subject were to speed up, everything around them would appear slowed down, correct? Let me take a crack at this myself...
  15. coktail

    Pole through Earth, faster than c?

    Here's a question from a coworker: Based on the idea that the tips of fan blades move faster the base relative to the center of the fan, if you were to somehow put a very, very (impossibly) long pole through the spinning Earth, could the tips of the pole reach c or faster given that the pole...
  16. coktail

    Thank you, PF!

    Dear Everyone, Your patience and knowledge have helped me learn so much and work through some brain-bending confusion, mainly about relativity. I still have so many questions, but at least I have you all to help me through it! PF is an invaluable resource. As always, thank you. -Aaron
  17. coktail

    Are massless objects immune to time dilation?

    Imagine there is a train moving at .9c with a person on the train and an observer on a platform watching the train go by. The person on the train walks forward while shining a flashlight. To the observer on the platform, the person on the train is time dilated and walks forward in "slow...
  18. coktail

    Relativistic mass, time dilation, length contraction, and traveling near c

    A spaceship with an arbitrarily large quantity of fuel cells departs Earth and accelerates away from it with a fixed trajectory until it reaches .9c. It continues to accelerate, but never reaches c because that is impossible for any object with mass. From the frame of reference of the crew...
  19. coktail

    Length contraction of distant objects/space, etc

    If I am moving through space at a velocity that is a significant fraction of c, are all objects ahead of me in my path contracted in the direction of my travel for an infinite distance? In other words, are planets and stars from right in front of me to the edge of the known universe contracted...
  20. coktail

    The nature of nothingness/space, and potential multiverse

    Is the current mainstream thinking that spacetime was created with or by the big bang? I've read many posts about a "wrap-around" universe in which there is no border, and traveling to the "edge" of the universe would pop you out on the other side. I've done some brain-wracking, and I haven't...
  21. coktail

    Relativity of length contraction

    If two clocks with observers attach to them move away from each with symmetrical acceleration, they will experience symmetrical time dilation, meaning they both see the rate of each other's clocks slow down relative to their own. However, if the acceleration is asymmetrical, the time dilation...
  22. coktail

    A few questions about light and relativistic effects

    Here's a few smattered questions I've had a hard time finding good answers for: 1. Why is the speed of light a constant? Is it related to the fact that it is massless? Is it because it isn't subject to time dilation? 2. Why is the speed of sound, or EVERYTHING for that matter, not...
  23. coktail

    Unpredictability vs Randomness

    Hi All, How do we tell the difference between something being random and something being deterministic but unpredictable because of limitations without with our tools/technology or methods of knowing (e.g. uncertainty principal)? Are there cases where we cannot tell the difference? For...
  24. coktail

    Energy required to accelerate, and frames of reference

    It is my understanding that the faster an object moves, the more energy is required to accelerate it. As an object approaches the speed of light, an infinite amount of energy is required to further accelerate it, which is why no object can travel faster than the speed of light. But movement is...
  25. coktail

    Measuring the speed of light at different velocities

    Let's say there is a football field with a mirror set up in one of the end zones. If I am standing at the 50 yard line with a laser, and I point it at the mirror (facing me) in the end zone and shoot of a single blast of the laser and then record it's velocity as it bounces back and hits a...
  26. coktail

    Time dilation and the perception of light

    Hi All. I have a little bit of a strange question I'm trying to figure out. If a human body was undergoing time dilation relative to another object, we believe that their brain, and therefore mind would slow down along with the rest of their body, correct? If this is so, and light...
  27. coktail

    Multiple collections of energy, very far apart

    Is it possible that the big bang, and all the energy we know of in the universe, is just one big collection of energy of many? Is it possible that big bangs are happening all the time, but just so vastly far apart that we could never detect them? This seems to get into the "Could anything...
  28. coktail

    Higgs Field, Big Bang, and Spacetime

    This is several questions crammed together because they overlap in my mind. Thanks! Is the Higgs Field something that occupies the complete void of space, or is it thought to be a property of space itself? Was the Higgs Field caught up in the mass of the pre-big bang singularity, or would...
  29. coktail

    Relative motion and accumulated time dilation

    I have a few questions about time dilation and how it accumulates. 1a. Say you have a situation where you have two clocks that move away from each other with symmetrical acceleration and relative motion. From what I understand, each clock would appear to have slowed down relative to the...
  30. coktail

    Faster than light relative speeds (I know it's impossible!)

    We have particle accelerators on Earth that can speed up particles to near the speed of light. Earth itself is hurtling through space, as is the solar system and galaxy that its a part of. If an observer were to float outside of our galaxy and observe those speeding particles in the...