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  1. J

    (resolved) Seebeck effect: why can't electron+hole combine at cold end?

    Sorry for question. I found a more appropriate diagram: Ref:
  2. J

    (resolved) Seebeck effect: why can't electron+hole combine at cold end?

    Hi, In seebeck effect: Ref: Once the red region is hot, the electrons and holes move toward cooler region i.e. bottom. So there is a positive potential toward right side of cold side and negative region toward left side of cold side. So why can't the electrons and holes combine here only...
  3. J

    Wireless Power Transfer (is this correct)

    How Could you explain the working of this circuit? I found a slightly difference circuit: It says: In transmitter section, the Transistor is generating high-frequency AC current across the coil and the coil is generating a magnetic field around it. As the coil is center tapped, the two sides...
  4. J

    Wireless Power Transfer (is this correct)

    But I drew the original circuit that I have posted in matlab simulink and was able to get oscillations. I had kept source voltage around 0.4V
  5. J

    Wireless Power Transfer (is this correct)

    Ref: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Design-and-Simulation-of-Different-Wireless-Power-Baroi-Isla m/dc19ecfde904964704777ab5adef96d5d6846f1f I couldn't find the working of this circuit so I guess it would be like: Initially transistor is OFF, so the current flows through Base, and...
  6. J

    How does a PLL work?

    Oh boy! Electronics is super difficult. Electrical engineering is easier, to be frank, cause there at least we can visualize stuff. With electronics, it's more maths and equations :(
  7. J

    How does a PLL work?

    Thanks for all the replies. It's very helpful. Sorry for the late reply. I had gone home for holiday. This is where I have doubt. If the difference between input and output phase is zero then the output of LPF will be zero and thus the VCO will get 0 signal in that case? Or maybe the final...
  8. J

    How does a PLL work?

    I'm just having a hard time to understand why convert phase difference to frequency output. I mean in feedback the goal is to reduce output error. Like you run a system, and the feedback will give part of output to the input. This will be error and the final goal is to reduce error by using...
  9. J

    How does a PLL work?

    So if the output frequency is same as input frequency why would the PLL be used? To get stable frequency as output? I read about Frequency Multiplier now though. Thanks for the answers.
  10. J

    How does a PLL work?

    So once the output frequency matches the input frequency, will the phase detector give any output signal or will it give zero? Let's assume at some point difference between input phase and feedback phase is 30 degrees. So VCO will get a DC signal that is proportional to 30 degrees. So VCO will...
  11. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Thanks for this.
  12. J

    How does a PLL work?

    From reference: https://www.elprocus.com/phase-locked-loop-operating-principle-and-applications/ It says that the PD produces an output that is DC level proportional to (Fi - Fo) (I think it has typo. It should be '-' but they've printed '+'). Then the low pass filter removes the high...
  13. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Lol.. Thanks again :)
  14. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Thanks a lot. Very helpful!!! One last question (a bit silly maybe). Why would the flux collapse? I mean in case of a capacitor once we charge it, then unless there is a closed path (preferably with a R in series) the capacitor won't discharge (assuming leakage to be 0) But in circuit that we...
  15. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Ok... Thanks a lot for this help. I was struggling a lot to understand how this oscillator works.
  16. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    When you say Q1 open, you mean it's short circuit right? How do you figure out dot convention for transformer? There was this another circuit on this link: https://www.assignmentpoint.com/science/engineering/wireless-power-transmission-via-magnetic-resonant-coupling.html From link: When power...
  17. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Are you talking about Q1 or Q2? Suppose Q1 is initially on, so current path is Then flux across N1 will saturate and reach a constant value. So emf across it will reduce and become 0. Then what will happen? It's inductor so eventually it'll be short circuit for DC current. Why will current...
  18. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Once the primary current reaches maximum, why will it decrease?
  19. J

    Royer Oscillator Working Principle

    Hi, I am studying Wireless Energy Transfer and I find Royer Oscillator in that. Ref: Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royer_oscillator I am unable to understand how it works. I found a diagram here: Ref: https://www.smps.us/inverters.html It says that (quoted from webstie): In practice...
  20. J

    How does this have 24 transistors?

    Then she'll ask me why I missed her class, and I was at the gym at that time.
  21. J

    How does this have 24 transistors?

    Because I missed her class and I saw this in her video lecture. And she is in another campus. Her lectures are conducted online.
  22. J

    How does this have 24 transistors?

    Our professor is teaching this circuit and she mentioned there are 24 transistors. But I counted and it comes out to be 22 T1 to T4 needs 2 (transistor) * 4 = 8 transistors Each inverter needs 2 transistors. so 7 inverters need 14 transistors. total 22 transistors. Unless we're also creating a...
  23. J

    Diode Energy Band Diagram

    But why does it move down and why not up? The y axis is energy to do what?
  24. J

    Diode Energy Band Diagram

    Ref: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/pnjun2.html Hyperphysics Asstr Why does the band diagram shift up or down when I apply potential? Why does it shift down when positive potential is applied? Professor said it's because electron has negative charge and so we consider...
  25. J

    D Latch using Transmission Gates

    Also maybe it can be that inverter also makes up for voltage drop if any. Like inverter will again either pull up to 5 V or 0 V. Like if memory has output as 5 V, then with time it may degrade to 4.5 V and then to 3 V. If it goes below 2.5 V, it may be treated as logic 0. So with 2 inverters...
  26. J

    D Latch using Transmission Gates

    But why do I need inverters? If the two inverters are in series, the output is same as input. I might as well not use them.
  27. J

    D Latch using Transmission Gates

    My book has this diagram: Book: Digital Integrated Circuits by Jan M. Rabaey I don't understand the purpose of using the three Inverters. It's not mentioned in the book, nor could I find anything on the internet.
  28. J

    Voltage Swing for NMOS

    The voltage drop increases when the drain is used to drive the gate of another Mosfet as shown in left part of above pic. Thanks for this :)
  29. J

    Voltage Swing for NMOS

    Ok, but if Vds is less than Vov, then the mosfet would go in linear mode, right? That's not a favorable mode (I don't know why though. Most switch mode should be cut off or saturation)
  30. J

    Voltage Swing for NMOS

    Thanks. I understood the 1 part. But not the second part. How will drop across M2 be zero. Drop across M2 is overdrive voltage, right? I.e Vds. Vx can be Vdd - Vth. If Vy also becomes Vdd-Vth, then there will be no current flow as Vds = 0. No potential difference so no current flow.
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