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1. B Analysis of Fusion & Fission by Binding Energy

In fusion reactions, lighter nuclei are combined into heavier ones (atomic mass increases); so the direction is from left to right (shown on the diagram). Therefore, in the fusion of 'light elements' the total final binding energy is higher (the related arrow points upward); so $B_2-B_1>0$ and...
2. B Released Energy: Is my understanding correct?

Exothermic process is a [nuclear] reaction in which energy is released, but for endothermic processes energy is needed. What does this released or needed energy come from? Let's say we have the fusion shown in this picture: $m_h, m_t, m_α, m_p, m_n$ - masses of helium-3, tritium, helium-4...
3. B Basic definition: Nuclear Fusion & Fission

The best-known classes of nuclear transmutations are fission and fusion: Nuclear Fusion Under normal condition, nuclei do not stick together; because they repel each other at large distances (due to the electrostatic repulsion 'barrier') and thus the strong nuclear force cannot act. But if these...
4. B Mass Defect: Is my understanding correct?

Mass – Energy Relationship: According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, when the energy of a body increases, so does its mass, and vice versa. If the difference in energy is indicated by ΔE and the difference in mass by Δm, these two quantities are related by his famous equation...
5. B Nuclear Binding Energy: Is my understanding correct?

The binding energy of a nucleus is the energy of the strong force, minus the disruptive energy due to the Coulomb force. Thus, to illustrate the curve of binding energy per nucleon, we can combine both of the diagrams above: Analyzing this diagram is very important for studying nuclear...
6. B The Strong Nuclear Force: Is my understanding correct?

The strong nuclear force is the strongest of the four basic forces in nature (the others are: the electromagnetic force, gravity, and the weak nuclear force). But it also has the shortest range, meaning that nucleons (protons & neutrons) must be extremely close (~1 fm) before its effects are...
7. B Coulomb Force: Is my understanding correct?

In a bound state like atom nucleus (except H-1), protons carry a positive charge so repel each other by the Coulomb force. This type of electromagnetic force, (also referred to as electrostatic repulsion) is an inverse-square force (has infinite range characteristics), so a proton added to a...
8. I Nuclear Fusion: Radioactive Decay?!

Radioactive decay modes always release energy; but why can't nuclear fusion of light elements be a mode of radioactive decay? I guess because although such processes are exothermic, we need an inaccessible fairly high amount of energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion barrier. But now...
9. B Input Energy of Radioactive Decays

But how about some radioactive decays? (α, SF, CD, ...) Don't we need energy to to separate some nucleons of a radioactive nucleus?
10. Naturally Occurring Elements: the latest version!

What exactly is a naturally occurring element? How many naturally occurring elements has been observed? -the Latest Version! Would you please tell me the exact atomic no range of such elements (with exceptions)? I would be really grateful if anyone could answer my questions. (Based on...
11. A M - Afraid of Darkness

I think that's only due to our mistakes that we can improve our performance... "A person who never made a mistake, never tried anything new" -Albert Einstein I'm here to make mistakes, ask questions and learn new things about Physics!
12. B Radioactive decay, Stability and Halflife

As it's written in the following article, nuclear binding energy is always a positive number; thus it takes energy to disassemble a nucleus into its nucleons. ...The binding energy is always a positive number, as we need to spend energy in moving these nucleons, attracted to each other by the...
13. I Binding energy or Kinetic energy?

Summary: I always confuse Binding Energy with Released Energy in such processes. Which one comes from mass defect? For example in a Deuterium-Tritium fusion two nuclei with lower binding energy converse to He-4 with much higher binding energy (and a neutron). The released energy is 17.6 MeV...