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    What is mass?

    Hey yhPscis, Mass is an elusive property. When you consider the masses of the individual quarks that constitute the proton or neutron, for example, and compare that with the mass of these composite particles, it becomes clear that there is something other than 'particles' that constitute mass...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Hey Bapowell, Not at all. The experiment, even today, is open to interpretation. You are quite right to call it a 'quantum mechanical effect'. This is the Copenhagen Interpretation which holds that this effect can only be truly described with probabilistic quantum mechanical mathematics...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Hey Chronos, In the Young Double-slit experiment that I mentioned in my last post, a point-source monochromatic light was placed equidistant between two thin slits, light passing through the slits emerged diffracted and photo-sensitive recordings were made of the area where the diffracted...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Hey twofish-quant, General response to your last posts: Enough with the SR already. You are trying to root this question in SR. It is not a question of observers. A unobserved photon from a distant source passing over our heads and off into the void has still undergone cosmological...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Hey Chronos, I think the best example to give here is Young's double-slit experiment which provides a clear demonstration of the interference of lightwaves (interference fringes). The age of the light is not a property of it - though time is inferred from its energy. The significant...
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    Why is the formation of ionic compounds exothermic?

    No. The scenarios I proposed are as valid as saying 'There's a little leprechaun in the atom that grabs the electron to fill his magic box of eight at which time it sings and we see that as energy'. It's like this. The textbook response to your question is that electrons are in a higher...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    I know.....that's what I'm saying?? Not at all. Dark energy is a hypothetical concept - thought by many to be the effect of the cosmological constant and is a measure of what we don't know. On the other hand the CMBR is very real and measurable. What's more it's the same stuff as a...
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    Why is the formation of ionic compounds exothermic?

    Hey Brimley, Ahh. I think this is more to do with the nature of energy itself. Heat or temperature is a measure of energy and there are many - pressure, force, kinesis (motion), luminosity to name but a few. But the true nature of energy is not very well understood at all. So heat is...
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    Molecular structure question

    Hey edpell, This is more an electron structure question. M1+ e e M2+ This a charge neutral scenario. When stuff is bonded you must offset the all protons and electrons in the molecule to determine the resultant charge - though experimentally it is possible to determine if one of the...
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    Why is the formation of ionic compounds exothermic?

    Hey Brindley, Ionic compounds are formed when an atom(s) with normally 1,2 or 3 electrons in its outer valence bonds with another atom(s) with 5,6 or 7 electrons in its outer valence. The electrons in the first atom can attain a lower energy state by making up a complete valence shell in the...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    This is the question of energy exchange that I am posing, except you are asking 'where has it gone?' and I am asking 'how was it taken?'. Logically, if something is acting upon the photon to change it then it must do it by applying a force - in this case it would seem that only a very weak...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Good stuff marcus. I'd been convinced by my cosmology textbook that the Doppler effect in light is perfectly analagous to the Doppler effect in sound. So I was relieved when reading your post to see that the intuitive direction I was heading when I asked 'Did the information change en-route?'...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    I was separating out the 'emission' part of the Doppler effect for demonstration purposes and re-reading my post it seems that I implied that the whole of the Doppler effect occurs at that point. It was unintentional. Thankfully the guy with answers, marcus, read through that. No. I...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Sure, this is a condition for the question. The crux is this. When the photons were emitted they had the same information, they were emitted under the same conditions - the Doppler effect is the stretching (or compression) of the photon at the time of emission. Once free of the emitter's...
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    Hubble's Law conundrum

    Imagine this;- Two planets and a star separated by cosmological distances that share an amost linear positional relationship - the star is not in the middle and both planets have a direct eyeline to it. Both planets have intelligent life and both are observing the star's redshift. Two...
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    Resolution of electron orbitals

    Ooooh......alxm........you are a tease. I over-pitched it didn't I?....it was just too good to be true.....ergo it could not be. I mean....I started out under-pitching it, but you drew me out.......cheeky:wink: Never mind. Fortunately it's strength does not lie in my ability to sell...
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    Resolution of electron orbitals

    Hi alxm, All three. It also gives physical meaning to the quantum numbers used in representing the orbitals, shows why certain orbitals fill before others, and is wholly conducive with the charge density distributions of the orbitals of electrons around the nucleus. For the...
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    Resolution of electron orbitals

    Hi, I have developed a model that demonstrates the filling of atomic orbitals but need some 'constructive' criticism on its content. How do I go about that? I currently have it in a pdf format. Can anyone help?
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    Hey skeptic2 "ch@rlatan, I'm afraid I don't see the 14 contact points (4/6/4). I see only 12 (3/6/3) as Dave mentioned" Originally posted by skeptic2 Yeah, in my original thinking I was confusing my vertices and facets, which is why I put the question to the forum. A rhombic...
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    Momentum, what velocity do i use?

    Momentum is what an object possesses only when it is moving. The equation p=mv states that momentum (p) is equal to mass (m) times velocity (v). Momentum is used as a means to define an object by it's mass and speed. Since your cart was hit whilst stationary it's speed was zero therefore it's...
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    EUREKA Well done you guys, one and all. Sweet little cherry on the top from Q_Goest. Been wrestling with that puppy for some time now. So Thanks Ch@rlatan
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    Hey Dave Glad somebody got their balls out. Here's the problem. Look at the face of those steel balls - particularly the three in the middle. Each of those is surrounded by 6 others that are showing in the same plane. The dodecahedron is not consistent with this observation. Plus every...
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    Final Help with Experiment!

    Gamma rays do spread out evenly....because of their randomness (and laws of large numbers). For the second part of your question....are you joking.....because the type of experiment you outlined above would require an incredible amount of money and resources - you may even have to invent your...
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    OK let's make these balls very slippery by adding a very fine oil so no internal friction occurs. It doesn't matter how they are packed as long as none are forced. The vacuum will arrange them naturally.
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    Hey tiny-tim Yes they would be cubes if I packed them square. And No your question is not valid because it is impossible for them to remain spheres - think about how the spaces between the spheres have to be taken up by the membrane of the ball. As the pressure builds and the balls'...
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    Momentum, what velocity do i use?

    You simply use the velocity at the point of incident ie at the collision point. Normally in physics you might be expected to deduce the velocity from a function that describes the movement of the rolling cart. You don't need to do this because you have the raw data. Bonus points, though for...
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    What velocity to use to find momentum?

    You must use (or deduce) the velocity at the point (in time) of observation.
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    I'm stuck with my 'Balls in a vacuum'

    Hey, Can anyone help me with my imaginary experiment? In a large glass tank I place air-filled balls of thin rubber (like a balloon but perfectly spherical). I fill the tank to the top with the rubber balls, seal the lid and evacuate the tank of air. The internal pressure difference...
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    Disgruntled observer

    Hey JesseM Of course. The same constant movement that the observer on the craft observes - because measurements have been taken from the craft's moving frame of reference. If at each of those points along the ruler there was also a camera that took a thought-experimental photo of the craft...
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    Disgruntled observer

    Let’s put an observer in a 3-D frame of reference at x=0, y=0, z=0 to observe one of Einstein’s thought-experiments. You know the one - where a spaceship is equipped with a photon emitter, a mirror and another observer whose frame of reference is at rest with the spaceship. Let’s have the...
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