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    A Ground Penetrating Radar formula

    I am interested in the physics of ground penetrating radar. 1) Does anyone know where I can find a derivation of the formula in the attached jpg for the energy reflected? K=the dialectic constant. 2) An intuitive explanation of why the dialectic constant is important in determining the energy...
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    Work energy theorem

    I read on the Internet that the work done by a (rigid) body = the change in Kinetic energy. What if I lift a rigid body slowly and vertically by 1 meter above the Earth's surface so that the initial velocity = final velocity =0? According to the Work Energy theorem as stated on many sites on...
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    EM Wave: Phase of the electric and magnetic waves?

    In a vacuum, the plane wave solutions to Maxwell's Equations are... E=E0*cos(wt-kr) B=B0*cos(wt-kr) ie they are in phase. (See for example ) I don't...
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    That Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle

    Does the Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle mean: 1) If a particle is confined within a length x then it must jiggle around with a momentum given by p ~ h/2x PI OR 2) If we measure the position of a particle to an accuracy of x then its momentum will be uncertain by ~ h/2x PI
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    Interaction of photons with charged particles

    Can someone please tell me the name of the theory describing the interaction of photons with charged particles eg electrons, protons? Can you also suggest a good introductory web page describing that theory at First Year University level for self study? Better still, a good VIDEO lecture on...
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    Aircraft lift - is it all Bernoulli's principle?

    I find it hard to believe that the only factor important in computing aircraft lift is Bernoulli's principle. Doesn't good old Newton's Second Law play an effect? In other words simply deflecting the airflow downwards. Does anyone know the relative importance of these factors? (EG for a...
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    Reason the early Universe was opaque?

    Apparently the early universe was opaque because the atoms were ionized. I'm wondering, why do electrons scatter photons but atoms don't? I'm presuming it's the electrons that do the scattering.
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    RELATIVITY: Co-ordinates of events

    Homework Statement A meter ruler moves at velocity u to the right past a stationary observer. The observer is at (0,0) in his rest frame. Give the (x,t) co-ordinates of the following events. 1. The right end of the ruler passes the observer (in the observer's frame) 2. The left end of the...
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    Special Relativity: Relative velocity

    Homework Statement I know that if you have 2 observers, "A", one at rest and the other "B" moving wrt "A" and if the moving observer shoots a projectile, then we can calculate the velocity of the projectile wrt "A" using the standard equation shown below. I was thinking what equation would...
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    Magnetic monopoles are beyond me

    How can you possibly have a magnetic monopole? The field lines must terminate somewhere, surely! I heard about them on a cosmology video on YouTube.
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    Find the velocity of the 14kg mass just before it hits the ground

    Homework Statement A 14kg mass is attached to one side of a vertical pulley and an 8kg to the other. The 14kg mass is 5m above the ground. The 8kg is just resting on the ground. The pulley is frictionless and weightless. Find the velocity of the 14kg mass just before it hits the...