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1. NASA's greenhouse effect not correct?

NASA says Earth's greenhouse effect makes Earth 33 C hotter than the Moon. All of that warming can be explained by Earth having 1 bar of pressure compared to the Moon having no pressure. Going from the Moon to Earth is like going from the top of the troposphere to sea level, roughly speaking...
2. Some insights about the Riemann hypothesis needed

The Riemann hypothesis states, whenever the Riemann zeta function hits 0, the real part of the input must be 0.5. Does any input with real part being 0.5 make the function hit 0? Also, assuming the hypothesis is true, would it suffice to prove that if the input's real part is not 0.5, then the...
3. Numbers are infinite, so why would the universe not be infinite?

After all, numbers are part of the universe. :biggrin:
4. Is it really true that, for any n > 0 , there is a prime between 2 ^ n

and 2 ^ n + 2 * n? I have checked it for n from 1 to 39. At n = 40, 2 ^ n is over a trillion, and I no longer have the resources to continue checking. I believe this statement is true. As n gets to 40 or more, would this statement become more probable or less probable by the Prime Number...
5. How come, for any n > 2, the nth triangular number + the nth square

number cannot be prime? I have checked this for n from 3 to 53,509, the latter being the limit for unsigned int. I believe this is true, and I thereby claim that this is a true statement. However, I don't see any obvious explanation for it.
6. What theorem is this called? For any gap size n, no more than n gaps

of size n can consecutively occur in the sequence of primes.
7. Why is Goldbach conjecture that every even = a prime + a prime becomes

more and more likely to be true the bigger the even? Primes become more rare, so it seems to me this notion is counter intuitive. :confused: A few recent papers all point to that Goldbach becomes more and more likely the higher up you go. A very large even can be the sum of two large odds or...
8. For any Pythagorean triple, the number of primes under a + b + c must

be no more than c? In fact, only for the first triple does equality hold. Upon examining some of the triples, I noticed this must be true. However, I'm having a hard time explaining why. Is there a good explanation for this? Many thanks!
9. Is it true that any rule regarding prime numbers eventually fails?

Other than the fact that prime numbers are infinite?
10. Why is equal sign used in physics?

Might seem a little silly, but I just can't seem to get my head around it. In math, when we write (a + b)^2 = a^2 + 2ab + b^2 or 2 = 1 + 1 , we mean the quantity on the left side of = and the quantity on the right side of = are the same. In physics, when we write F = ma or E = mc^2, what's on...
11. Fastest speed of light?

Speed of light through vacuum is 299 792 458 m / s, but is slower through a denser medium like glass or water. We now know vacuum is not empty as previously thought, but has all kinds of new material in them like dark matter. Has any experiments been done to determine how fast light can be...
12. Can the shape of the universe be inferred from the CMBR?

Planck CMBR data http://scienceforseniorcitizens.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/cosmic-microwave-radiation-google-earth-background1.jpg [Broken] COBE, WMAP, Planck compared to each other http://www.scidacreview.org/0704/images/cmb07.jpg [Broken] Methinks the distribution of the CMBR intensity...
13. Question about turning a hemisphere into an equivalent circle?

I was thinking about this when I was trying to work out a simpler way of finding the volume of a sphere. Suppose we cover a hemisphere with a piece of pliable thin cover. Stretching the cover flat would make a circle. The circumference of the sphere is 2*pi*r. The distance along the surface of...
14. What is space in contrast to void?

Suppose space is expanding in the universe, then there must be void outside the universe. If this theory is true, what would be void? And how would void differ from space?
15. Question about density of prime numbers?

It is known that prime numbers become sparser and sparser, with the average distance between one prime number and the next increasing as n approaches infinity. Dividing an even number by 2 results in a bottom half from 1 to n / 2 and a top half from n / 2 to n. For a particular sufficiently...
16. Energy and mass, equal in amount in the universe?

Mass and energy are convertible to each other with E = mc^2. Cosmic background radiation average intensity roughly 2.725 K, and it's all over the place with very little variation. Suppose we add up all the energy in the universe, including the cosmic background radiation, the kinetic and...
17. Could there be a connection between the cosmological background

microwave radiation and the shape of the universe? The hotter parts could indicate parts of the universe that are closer to Earth while the colder parts could indicate the opposite, which would mean the universe is not a perfect geometric shape, which would show no variation in the cosmic...
18. Is the microwave background radiation still decreasing?

And if so, at a rate faster or slower or the same compared to at earlier times of the universe?
19. E = mc^2, so how can anything have zero mass?

E = mc^2 results in c^2 = E / m, and division by 0 is undefined.