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  1. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Hello, I found a weird sentence in a book about enzymes....

    Here's a nice diagram illustrating the point: image source: As others in the thread have said, the free energy difference between the reactants and products is still the same. However, the path between the two needs a higher...
  2. Ygggdrasil

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) - not just for Coronavirus vaccines

    It's worth noting that CureVac developed an mRNA vaccine that does not use the modified nucleoside (N1-methylpseudouridine) used in the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines. Unfortunately, their Phase 3 trials of the vaccines showed that it is much less effective (only ~47% efficacy against COVID-19...
  3. Ygggdrasil

    Pan-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactic and therapeutic - TMPRSS2 inhibitor

    Note that TMPRSS2 is a human protein that has normal functions in the human body aside from being hijacked to help process the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. While there are successful antiviral drugs that target host proteins, these drugs are more likely to have side effects that could limit the...
  4. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Stats USA

    Perhaps a better way to compare COVID-19 deaths across countries without having to worry about differences in how countries count COVID deaths is excess death statistics. Excess deaths shows essentially, how many more deaths occurred in a country over the baseline level of deaths typically seen...
  5. Ygggdrasil

    Heme iron and cardiovascular disease

    I think the paraphrasing you quote does accurately portray the findings from the article cited. However, it is important to note that the finding is an association and that correlation does not necessarily imply causation. The data analyzed in the paper all comes from observational studies not...
  6. Ygggdrasil

    Where Do Systems Belong Among the Sciences?

    I'm approaching this from the point to view as one trained in biophysics who has seen some of these ideas develop in studying biological systems. This topic is definitely interdisciplinary and draws from many different disciplines. Many of these studies are focused on biological systems and...
  7. Ygggdrasil

    Mild Covid-19 Linked to Brain Damage

    There was a thread on this study when it was first posted to a pre-print server: Here is my post from that thread (I have not yet read through the version published by Nature, though through a...
  8. Ygggdrasil

    "Green" Ammonia article in Wired (Alternative to current carbon-heavy ammonia production)

    I'll repeat my post from the previous thread here: A lot of the issues with the potential for a future "hydrogen economy" that was touted in the early 2000s applies to the idea of these ammonia fuel cells. See for a nice discussion...
  9. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Therapy holds back Cancer more than a decade

    While what you say is true now, it will not necessarily continue to be true in the future. Various companies are working on ways to better automate the processes involved in generating CAR-T cells to make them cheaper and more widely accessible...
  10. Ygggdrasil

    Origin of SARS-Cov-2 virus

    Also, for reference, here is a link to the Worobey et al. pre-print manuscript discussed by the NPR article cited in the OP: The Huanan market was the epicenter of SARS-CoV-2 emergence Abstract: Here's another helpful summary of the pre-print...
  11. Ygggdrasil

    Origin of SARS-Cov-2 virus

    This statement seems to contradict what is stated in the NPR article: (source: NPR article cited above) Here's a link to the May 2021 letter published in Science (of which Worobey is an author), which states that "Theories of accidental release from a lab and zoonotic spillover both remain...
  12. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Cannabinoids Block Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2 and variants

    From quickly browsing the article, it looks like the researchers studied only exocannabinoids (specifically only cannabinoids from hemp). The article does not even mention endocannabinoids.
  13. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    T-cell immunity, which is likely a major factor providing protection against severe illness, does not seem to be affected much by the variants. For example, see the following article: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces immunological T cell memory able to cross-recognize variants from Alpha to...
  14. Ygggdrasil

    COVID And Now, here comes COVID-19 version BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, . . .

    The relative prevalence of BA.2 does seem to be increasing both at the worldwide level (as assessed by sequencing data from GISAID from NextStrain) as well as in the US (as assessed by sequencing data from the US CDC): Here's the GISAID data from NextStrain, with BA.2 being the darker orange...
  15. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    Are you sure that the abstract is of observational data? Here's the text of the abstract that you link to: Seems like to me, the authors are building a machine learning model based on experimental data on other variants to infer the properties of Omicron BA.2 (without including any...
  16. Ygggdrasil

    What's going on with the COVID cases in Alabama?

    I don't find the % change graph so useful, and find it more useful to plot the number of cases instead. Here's the CDC data for Marengo County: Clearly, Marengo County is...
  17. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    Preliminary data from animal experiments suggest that boosting with the Omicron-specific vaccine is not any more effective than boosting with the original mRNA vaccine: mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron boost in vaccinated macaques elicits comparable B cell expansion, neutralizing antibodies and...
  18. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    Here's a nice opinion piece in STAT news speculating about possible scenarios for evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus going forward, laying out four different possible scenarios that have been observed in the evolution of other viruses. Here's a good summary from later in the article...
  19. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Long Haulers

    Thanks for the reference. I've seen conflicting reports about how COVID-19 affects the heart. For example, earlier in the thread, I cited a large study of healthcare workers with mild COVID-19, which concludes: Prospective Case-Control Study of Cardiovascular Abnormalities 6 Months Following...
  20. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Targeting microbial metabolites to treat autism

    A pair of new papers published this week explores the how metabolites produced by gut microbes might be important regulators of brain activity and behavior, especially in relation to autism spectrum disorder. A News and Views article in Nature Medicine accompanies the articles and provides a...
  21. Ygggdrasil

    Safety of plastic spoons, etc. below their advised maximum temperature?

    Had to look up the original research paper to find the answer: Enjoy the game!
  22. Ygggdrasil

    Safety of plastic spoons, etc. below their advised maximum temperature?

    For a good article written on the subject of healthy lifestyles written for the general public, see:
  23. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    Some preliminary results from NIH's study of the Omicron-specific Moderna booster in animal tests: mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron boost in vaccinated macaques elicits comparable B cell expansion, neutralizing antibodies and protection against Omicron...
  24. Ygggdrasil

    What's the deal with CalTech et al not requiring standardized tests?

    While this is certainly one reason why colleges are dropping the test requirements, it is not the sole reason. For example, some research suggests that test scores are not really a useful predictor of how well prospective students will do in college...
  25. Ygggdrasil

    A very important poll

    I like the toasty flavor that the roasted rice adds to the tea. Another favorite (along the same lines) is hojicha, in which the tea leaves themselves are roasted.
  26. Ygggdrasil

    Bad technical journal article indicators

    I would actually argue the opposite. Good academic scholarship should cite previous relevant work in the introduction and manuscripts that don't cite the appropriate papers are often indicative of researchers who lack a good understanding of the existing scientific literature (e.g. papers that...
  27. Ygggdrasil

    Bad technical journal article indicators

    Those familiar with a particular field should know which journals tend to publish good papers that get read and cited by others in the field, so a red flag to an experienced researcher in a field is a journal that they and others in the field have not heard of before or are unfamiliar with.
  28. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Designer viruses as vaccines: yea or nay?

    Though the information you cite does seem reliable, I'm not sure there is absolutely no doubt about this issue. For example, here is what the CDC has to say on the issue, which suggests that vaccine-induced immunity provides more consistent protection than infection-induced immunity...
  29. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Therapy holds back Cancer more than a decade

    Decade-long leukaemia remissions with persistence of CD4+ CAR T cells Abstract:
  30. Ygggdrasil

    A very important poll

    My tea of choice is genmaicha (green tea with roasted brown rice).
  31. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Mouthwash disaggregation of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles

    My major concern with the study is that it does not actually test the effectiveness of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on SARS-CoV-2 virus. They use combine SARS-CoV-2 Virus Like-Particles (VLPs) (not the acutal virus, but something made in the lab to resemble virus) with CPC in a test tube, and...
  32. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    Here's a nice animation from Twitter showing how vaccinations, improved treatments, and the Omicron variant have altered the mortality associated with COVID-19: Of course, a caveat later in the twitter thread is worth re-iterating here:
  33. Ygggdrasil

    Viruses become less deadly over time?

    Researchers recently identified a new, more virulent strain of HIV. It is associated with higher viral loads among those infected and faster decline in T-cell counts. Luckily, the new variant seems to have a similar susceptibility to most antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection: A...
  34. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    Here are two studies published last week in the journal Science studying the effectiveness of COVID vaccines in reducing transmission of the virus: Indirect protection of children from SARS-CoV-2 infection through parental vaccination
  35. Ygggdrasil

    Long Covid and gut microbiotic changes

    The gut microbiome will change in response to many phenomena. What is the evidence that the changes in the gut micorbiome are a contributing cause to long COVID rather than an effect of long COVID? One could even imagine a situation that the gut microbiome changes to mitigate symptoms of long...
  36. Ygggdrasil

    Question about paper 10 January: Cross-reactive memory....SARS-CoV-2....

    Yes. The protection is nowhere near the level provided by vaccination or prior infection by SARS-CoV-2, but it is possible that prior infection by some of the "ordinary" coronaviruses could offer some level of protection against severe disease. For more information, see this previous Physics...
  37. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Long Haulers

    In the article, you cite, however, they write: Which is very different than your statement. Is there a reason for the discrepancy?
  38. Ygggdrasil

    Why does combining Hydrogen, Oxygen and Sulphur produce a liquid?

    Chemical reactions create new substances with new properties. The properties of the products of a chemical reaction are not necessarily the same as the reactants that produce them.
  39. Ygggdrasil

    Chemistry Bronsted-Lowery help needed

    Reaction 1 is not a balanced chemical equation (compare the number of hydrogen atoms on the left side of the reaction vs the right side of the reaction).
  40. Ygggdrasil

    COVID A promising therapeutic solution to COVID-19 - using ACE2 decoy

    Here's the citation to the evACE2 paper, since this has not yet been linked in the thread: Circulating ACE2-expressing extracellular vesicles block broad strains of SARS-CoV-2 Abstract: As to your questions about the paper, a few quick...
  41. Ygggdrasil

    Current disease events in wildlife and domestic animals!

    For this thread, it's also worth linking this previous PF thread discussing cases where coronaviruses from various domesticated animal species (e.g. pigs and dogs) that have been transmitted to humans...
  42. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Long Haulers

    Regarding the connections with EBV, remember that EBV reactivation is correlated with the incidence of long COVID, but this correlation does not necessarily mean that EBV reactivation causes long COVID. EBV reactivation can occur during situations of stress or immune suppression, so EBV...
  43. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Long Haulers

    Here are two papers study perform longitudinal investigation of COVID-19 patients to try to identify risk factors from the time of diagnosis that predict whether the patients will later develop post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC; aka long COVID). Multiple Early Factors Anticipate...
  44. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    Do you have sources for these two statements? I would be interested in seeing the data.
  45. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    Laboratory tests of serum from people with different vaccination statuses suggests that the booster shot does induce the development of antibodies against Omicron: Here are the three studies that the article references...
  46. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    It's probably ok to not delete the message, since the corrections come directly after your post (otherwise deleting the messages would make a few subsequent messages not make any sense). Maybe you could edit a message into the post to note the correction. It may also be worth preserving the...
  47. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    Are you sure they were talking about BA.2 and not the "Deltacron" news (e.g. )?
  48. Ygggdrasil

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

    This is not correct. Omicron is quite evolutionarily distant from Delta based on current phylogenetic data for SARS-CoV-2:
  49. Ygggdrasil

    Current disease events in wildlife and domestic animals!

    If you really want to stay up to date on disease outbreaks, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED) maintains a mailing list reporting on infectious diseases in humans, animals and plants: Just today, they published news on meningitis B in students in...
  50. Ygggdrasil

    COVID US Postal Service begins shipping free COVID tests

    I just ordered mine right before making this post :)