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  1. P

    Engineering Unobservable states

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observability I am studying observability and I try to get some intuition on the topic. Given the observable matrix, we can find the null space. However, the vectors of the null space are states but this differs from the definition of what a state vector of a...
  2. P

    Anisotropic Etching in Semiconductor Fabrication

    I am learning about designing semiconductors but I had some issues understanding some things about the structure of Si. About lattice structure: 1) Why does an FCC has 8 atoms per cell? Doesnt has 14? About wafers 1) I know you can have wafers along different surfaces. What information can I...
  3. P

    Lagrangian mechanics - rotating rod

    I was just thinking of a simple beam attached at one end at a stationary point. If I understand this, it helps to tackle harder problems. Thank you!
  4. P

    Lagrangian mechanics - rotating rod

    Hello, It might sound silly, but when I try to calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating rod to form the Langrangian (and in general), why it has both translational and rotational kinetic energy? Is it because when I consider the moment of Inertia about the centre I need to include the...
  5. P

    Silicon FCC -- Why are so many atoms shown in the lattice?

    Can you explain this in a bit more detail please. I though this correspond to the configuration of the minimum number of atoms thus all of the to have a complete outer layer. Correct me if I am wrong, but since the Si atom has 4valence electrons and it needs 4 more to be complete, doesn't this...
  6. P

    Silicon FCC -- Why are so many atoms shown in the lattice?

    I see, I got it wrong, by "electrons shwon as nodes" I meant the spheres that form the cube, so those are the Si atoms.
  7. P

    Silicon FCC -- Why are so many atoms shown in the lattice?

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/1-Silicon-crystallographic-structure-It-has-the-diamond-structure-which-is-two-fcc_fig4_34172659 the fcc silicon lattice is shown. My question is: Since the silicon atom has 4 valence electrons and requires 4 more to be completed, why are so many atoms shown...
  8. P

    Can someone give me a better intuition of bandwidth?

    Yes, I know how each work. What I meant is that, if someone uses full bandwidth for certain amount of time (TDMA) is it equivalent for someone to use part of the bandwidth for more time (FDMA).
  9. P

    Can someone give me a better intuition of bandwidth?

    Can someone give me a better intuition of bandwidth. The way I see it, is that the bandwidth is the range of frequencies which a signal/wave is allowed to have. This doesn't feel complete though. For example, how can I explain that TDMA, FDMA and CDMA are similar in this sense. As far as I know...
  10. P

    Semiconductor -- Conduction and Valence bands

    I am a new to this and I try to understand the basics. So initially once the atoms of silicon come together to form a solid, due to Pauli law no electrons can exist in the same energy state,thus many energy states are formed which together make the bands. My problem starts at this stage where I...
  11. P

    Calculate the maximum vertical point force P that this beam can sustain

    A simply-supported steel beam with a vertical point force P is shown in Fig. 2(a). A cross-section of the beam, which is composed of two identical C-shaped members bolted back-to-back, is shown in Fig. 2(b). Both C-shaped members have a uniform thickness of 1 cm. Pairs of bolts are located at a...
  12. P

    Reinforced concrete beams

    It is a rectangular shaped concrete which has 3 beams of steal in order to reinforce it. When I transforme the 3 beams, I have converted all 3 of them to a single piece of concrete with area mA. A is the total area of the 3 beams of steal and m is the ratio of the steal's Young's Modulus to the...
  13. P

    Reinforced concrete beams

    In a simple case like this.
  14. P

    Reinforced concrete beams

    When I convert the steel beams to concrete, do I transform the several different beams into a single piece of concrete in order to do the calculations to find the second moment of area of the beam or do I transform each beam seperately into a concrete piece? Intuitively, t seems reasonable to...
  15. P

    Beams-Bending stress exercise

    Thanks a lot, that answers a lot! No I have solved the question.
  16. P

    Beams-Bending stress exercise

    A chimney has a rectangular cross-section with external dimensions 800 × 600 mm and wall thickness 150 mm. It is 5 m high. The density of the material is 2000 kg/m3. Assuming that the material is elastic, calculate the maximum uniform wind-pressure loading (N/m2) that...
  17. P

    Structures: Bending moments

    I have a quesrion about forming the eqaution of moment equilibrium. As shown in the picture at cut 1 there are 2 vertical forces and a bending moment. I expect V=A. If I apply moment equilibrium about the point where the bending moment is, we get that Ay*x = M(1). But how about if I take moment...
  18. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    The calculations were easy to do, my concept was wrong but I couldn't say which part was wrong, as it seems I ignored the bending moment.
  19. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    Thank you very much, I think my mistake before when I was using a certain segment, it was that i ignores the bending moment. Where you say ''I used only the horizontal and vertical force components to get the horizontal and vertical force components at D, then sum of moments about A to get the...
  20. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    I tried my way to solve it, I my equation describes the same curve as yours, I just need it to calculate the distances. On the pdf it uses equilibrium of moments over the whole curve, I try to use the method of sections and moment equilibirum by I didnt get the same answer, is there a reason for...
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    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    Here is a pdf with the example and the answers
  22. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    It is a bit hard to do this because I am on a phone now, I am talkign about Example 2
  23. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    Sorry i didnt explain my thought, It says it is parabolic, so I set the origin at C with y-positive downwards and x-positive towards the right. I used y = ax^2, where i set x=5 and y = 5/2
  24. P

    Engineering Structure Mechanics-Three Pinned/Hinged Arches

    The Example 2 at this site ' http://ocw.ump.edu.my/pluginfile.php/1435/mod_resource/content/2/Chapter%205%20%E2%80%93%20Three%20Pinned%20Arch.pdf ' (page 14): It is parabolic hence the equation is y = (x^2)/10. I used the section method between A-D and applied equilibrium of moment to find a...
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