(I didn't know where to put this one, so somebody will eventually move it, I predict...)
This is a absolute newbie-question, so don't be evil!
Why does statistical mechanics deal with probabilities?
ASAIK, statistical mechanics is built on classical mechanics, where it is possible to predict...
Well, that's the problem. I consider the box with the gas to be my system and everything else to be the surroundings/universe.
But what if I turn it the other way around? If I consider everything but the box to be my system, and I pull up the partition, then I've applied work on the...
I have a box divided by a partition. On one side I have n mole ideal gas, on the other side there's vacuum.
If I remove the partition the ideal gas will expand into the vacuum. Since the box is adiabatic and no work is applied to or by the gas, \Delta U = 0.
But what about the work used...
The thermodynamic explanation of irreversibility - does it include the microscopic view of a process, i.e. the expansion of a ideal gas (the random movement of the molecules) or the melting of an ice cube?
Or is it only defined within the macroscopic world?
Yes, I stand corrected. I changed "a photon/particle" to photons/particles, but forgot to correct the rest.
Then how do I validate hf = mc^2, if it can't be applied to something like photons: they do have energy, but not any mass.
Does this have something to do with the wave/particle duality...
These are some of the very fundamental things about the wave/particle-duality, I do not understand:
1) Do photons have a mass?
2) Do particles have a frequency? E = hf , how do I interpret this?
3) E = mc^2 and E = hf. I've seen these two equations combined into mc^2 = hf, indicating that...
Very good explanation. I'll dig into the physics stuff now that turdferguson and ZapperZ gave me some words to look up.
Actually... no. I'm still in high school (or rather, the European equivalent) and this is my first year with physics. We're learning about waves at the moment, but this is...
The Photoelectric effect and "classical physics"
The kinetic energy of the ejected electrons predicted by the classical physics should be related to the intensity of the light.
According to experimental results, the kinetic energy of the electrons is proportional to the frequencies of the...
@ definition of mixing
I apologize for the confuzzlement. I did not know the distinction between the physical definition of mixing and the ... well, cook book's definition. This started when I mixed (oops) lemon juice and olive oil for a salad dressing, and the immiscibility thing made me...
Hmm, in your example the energy required to break the intermolecular forces (I.F. to make it easier) equals the energy gained when the new I.F. are formes, so deltaS = 0, then how can the reaction be entropy-driven?
Apart from that, I understood the rest - excellent answer! Thanks.
Why is deltaS < 0 when oil and water are mixed, while deltaS > 0 when water and alcohol are mixed?
I mean, it is possible to explain this whole miscibility with polarity etc., but what is the thermodynamic explanation?
Thanks.
Then if I heat the veg. oil/water-mixture, it should be possible? H = U + pV, and I assume the volumerelated work doesn't matter, so pV ~ 0, therefore H ~ U.
From G = H - TS, S > 0 when veg. oil and water are mixed together, so H < 0? That is a endothermic process, so in order to...
If water and vegetable oil are added to a bowl, they do not mix.
If gasoline and vegetable oil are added in another bowl, they _do_ mix. this has something to do with the polarity of the molecules, i.e. water is polar and gasoline and vegetable oil are unpolar.
But is it possible to...
I get it, thanks! \Delta S_{total} > 0, even though \Delta S_{sys} < 0, because \Delta H_{sys} < 0 according to the Gibbs energy and the conditions for a spontaneous process.
Is it possible to calculate the \Delta S_{surroundings} , if I know the \Delta H_{sys} ? I mean, is there any...
If \Delta H < 0 , then enthalpy is released from the system to the surroundings. It would make sense, if I had to add enthalpy ( \Delta H > 0, \qquad H = U + pV ) and the entropy decreased, but that's not true according to the Gibbs energy.
According to the 2nd law of thermodynamics, a spontaneous process will occur (or rather: is very likely to occur) if \Delta S > 0.
A chemical process occurs if \Delta G < 0, where G = H - TS.
Example:
H = -100 kJ
T = 1 K
S = -10 kJ/K
so \Delta G = - 190 kJ. In this example, \Delta...