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  1. S

    Plotting Density Parameters as a Function of Redshift

    I'm trying to plot the density parameters against redshift in Python, so I suppose this is kind of a cross over of programming and physics. I've been given the following two equations in order to do so $$r(z) = \lambda_H \int_{0}^{z} \frac{dz'}{E(z')}$$ $$E(z) = \frac{H(z)}{H_0} = \sqrt...
  2. S

    Vector field dynamics

    Currently working through some exercises introducing myself to quantum field theory, however I'm completely lost with this problem. Let $$L$$ be a Lagrangian for for a real vector field $$A_\mu$$ with field strength $$F_{\mu\nu} = \partial_\mu A_\nu - \partial_\nu A_\mu$$ gauge parameter...