I am doing my revision and noticed that metals all have a molar heat capacity ~25 J/mol/K = 3R. Ionic solids such as NaCl and CaF2 however have different molar heat capacities. (~51 and 72 respectively)
Why is this? there is no explination that my lecturer gave and I can't find it online but...
i am calibrating a detector set up using alpha particles to find resolution.
i have 2 silicon detectors a thin and thick one where the alpha is expected to pass through and lose energy in the first and be stopped by the second.
My handbook says i can find the energy resolution in the second...
Homework Statement
I have been given some data, which is 20 successive 500second bins containing raw photon counts.(ie signal+data)
The xray source is known to show flaring and from optical properties one suspects that it may show eclipses lasting ~1000sec.
I need to estimate the...
thanks for replying
so this is what i have got from your response:
so if my area calculated is the prob of getting more than the chi squared (216) is 0.0345, then this means that at a 5% significance level it is unlikely that we will get a result of more than 216.
but I am not quite sure...
ok so i have some data (d) of star counts (N=181), and a model (m = b-Fo where b=5 and Fo-constant flux)
I have found the chi squared value = 216
I know that the number of degrees of freedom here is N-parameters = 181-1 = 180
my question is:
"show that the model is not a good fit to the...
hi
i have some data (star counts) and i have a model and i want to perform min chi squared
so if i call my data di, and my model mi with std dev = \sigmai = 1
then \chi^2 = \sum \frac{(di - mi)^2}{\sigma i^2}
no my model is this mi = bi - Fo where bi is the background which has been...
Homework Statement
I have a luminosity prob distribution that i want to plot and find the expectation value and mode for.
Homework Equations
p(L)dL = A \frac{L}{i}^aexp(-\frac{L}{i}) \frac{dL}{i}
A=const
a= -0.7
i= 1.4e10 solar luminosity units
lower limit = 1e9 solar luminosity...
Homework Statement
my book states that approx 75% of galaxies in the universe are spirals, but then it says that out of a sample of 14 from the core of a large cluster of galaxies only 3 were found to be spiral.
it was suggested we could use binomial distribution to look at the prob of...
Homework Statement
sphere r=1cm contains same density of H2O as surroundings with additional N=10^20 iodine atoms/cubic cm
linear attenuation coeff (u) for water at 50keV = 0.2 /cm
crosssection for interaction of 50kEV photon with iodine = c = 3.6x10^-22 /cm^2
a) calculate u for the...
what is meant by density, such as the baryonic matter density in cosmology, in "units of the critical density"?
its mentioned in a question i need to do but i don't really know what it means.
Homework Statement
I have the function
(a(1+z)3 + b)-1/2
and i need to taylor expand it around z=0 to the first order,
a and b are constants, there sum is equal to one.
I have the answer:
1 - (1+q)z
where q = a/2 - b
This is in my physics book but it does not explain the...
Homework Statement
photon/baryon ratio = Np/Nb
Np, is the number density of the CMB photons
Nb, is the number density of baryons
Evaluate this ratio at the redshifts z=0 and z=100.
From my understanding, if interactions are negligable, particles cannot simply disappear. Therefore...
Homework Statement
Okay so i am applying a FT to an image of particles that are forming a lattice, and i need to find the average distance between the particles
because its not a perfect lattice, I am getting an airy pattern and i believe that the distance to the first ring is the average...
Homework Statement
A galaxy has velocity due to Hubble (Ho) expansion, and in addition a peculiar velocity (AN this is the velocity of the galaxy in its local enviroment/gravitational potential) this vel. is 450Km/s
I need to estimate the the minimum distance at which a galaxy must be in...
ok so on the left the Ecm is 1000GeV,
is pcm2c2 = Ecm2 - m2c4
...wait i don't think that helps...
my lecturer didnt really go over how to get the momentum. the only thing he metioned ws the 4momentum but i don't think that is what i use here
well i set it to m2c4 cause this is the invariant mass and so i can find this in the lab frame and it will be the same in the cm frame.
when i found the relation for this i went to the cm frame to use its Ecm to find the energy i need for the beam.
now while writing this i think i should...
(E+mc2)
is the sum of the energies of the 2 particles. the e- is stationary so i thought that its energy is just mc2 in the lab frame
p2c2 i didnt put a p(e+) +p(e-) because the momentum of e- is zero so its just the mom. of the e+
ok so i tried this instead
mass of e+ and e- =>
m2c4 = (E+mc2)2 - p2c2
= E2 - p2c2 + 2Emc2 + m2c4
= 2Emc2 + 2m2c4
and as mc2<<E
m2c4 = 2Emc2
now this is where I'm abit unsure:
can i say: m2 = (1000GeV)2?
cause this would give
(1000GeV)2 = 2E(0.51MeV)
so E = 1.96x1018eV
okay then thanks for that...
also could you just look at this as well? i wanted to try it before i put it up
if the same energy in the cm were to be achieved by colliding a beam of positrins with a target of stationary electrons, what energy of the positron would be required?
in cm frame...
Homework Statement
a positron and electron travel in opposite directions each with energy 5ooGeV and collide head-on.
what is the energy in the centre of mass (cm) of the collision?
The Attempt at a Solution
E(cm) = E(e+) + E(e-) = 500GeV + 500GeV = 1000GeV
is this right?
thanks
Homework Statement
magnetic field is azimuthal B(r) = B(p,z) \phi
current density J(r) = Jp(p,z) p + Jz(p,z) z
= p*exp[-p] p + (p-2)*z*exp[-p] z
use stokes theorem to find B-filed induced by current everywhere in space
Homework Equations
stokes -...
thats ok, its just that it doesn't seem right.
is it correct to get the temp by saying T~1/(z+1)?
cause this just gives values i would have thought as being too small. or is this the overall temp of radiation and matter? and i only want the CMBR temp
but surely
erad/em = 1 [cause I am looking for equality]
and so
erad/em = 1 = erad0(z+1)/em0
so
erad0/em0 = 1/(z+1)
therefore
z+1 = em0/erad0
which is what i put
ok so em0/erad0 = 1+z
z= (1.8x10-4)^-1 - 1 = 5526.0066027
this gives a temp of the CMBR => T=1/(z+1) = 1.809x10-4 K
this doesn't seem right. surely temp should be larger than now?
ok i just tried
z+1 ~ (1.8x10-4)-1
so z is ~5526
i know this doesn't take into account 3 types of neutrinos
do i times 1.8x10-4 by 1.68 to take them into account?
ok thanks for that the reasoning behind that makes more sense now
btw the next part says to calculate th redshift at which the energy density of matter = that of radiation (i.e. the CMBR photons)
i tried:
e = energy density
e[rad] / e[matter] = 1 when equal and this is also...
hi
im doing a question at the moment and am having issues understanding the question, and i can't ask my lecturer as he is stuck abroad with no internet.
the question asks to calculate the ratio of current energy density of CMBR photons to that of baryonic matter.
the present density of...
hi I am having a few conception problems with entropy
problem:
a solid with constant heat capacity and initial temp To, is brought in contact with hotter reservoir temp T1 and allowed to come into equilibrium. This is all isolated.
a) is the change in the entropy of the universe negative...
an atom has 3 non-degenerate E levels, = 0, e, 2e
What is the prob of occupancy of each energy level as T-> zero and infinty and why?
for E=0
I imagine that the prob for T->0, is 1 is one or approaching one as as the temp approaches absolute zero electrons occupy the lowest state
as...
okay so the question involves a boundary between 2 dielectrics.
one with n1=1.5 the other n2=1.4
incident angle of wave I= 80deg
critical angle i found to be C= 69deg
given wavelength in air is 700nm
1) prove component of wave vector parallel to boundary is = ky = k2*(n1/n2)*sin(I)...
oh yeah... of course:rolleyes:should have realized that earlier...
thanks for the help, that's another revision topic i can tick off
btw one quick question unrelated - I'm doing a question at the moment that simply states that there is a laser beam with power = 15MW/m^2 and i need to give...
okay s if i use 1/r*d/dtheta
then Etan becomes
= -(-psin(theta) / 4(pi)(epsilon)r3)
okay i get that now...thanks
btw just so i can get the physical pic in my head, is the tangental component of V perpendicular to the moment 'bar', or is it simply horizontal?
cause i pictured the diagram to...
i'm not sure on how to do a tangential derivative...i may have done it in maths but didn't know that's what it was called.
is it related to spherical coords?
well E = -(grad)V
so could if i use d/dr? and get E = = -psin(theta) / 4(pi)(epsilon)r3
would i then just take E[tan] = Esin(theta)
if we assume the dipole is at an angle theta to the E field?
but what about the - sign
potential due to electric dipole is
V = p.r / 4(pi)(epsilon)r3
show the tangential component of the electrical field is
= psin(theta) / 4(pi)(epsilon)r3
what I've tried:
i assumed there are 2 charges separated by distance r
potential difference U = qV = -qE.r
so can i...
hi
one of my past papers needs me to show that if 2 eigenfunctions, A and B, of an operator O possesses different eigenvalues, a and b, they must be orthogonal. assume eigenvalues are real.
we are given
\int A*OB dx = \int(OA)*B dx
* indicates conjugate
for the first thing your right i did write it down wrong t=it was meant to be b<x.
but with the the reason i wrote that the first derivative of the wavefunction is not continuous at the boundary x=-a, and b was cause i thought that when on the otherside of a boundary the potential->infinity...
for the first thing your right i did write it down wrong t=it was meant to be b<x.
but with the the reason i wrote that the first derivative of the wavefunction is not continuous at the boundary x=-a, and b was cause i thought that when on the otherside of a boundary the potential->infinity...
for the first thing your right i did write it down wrong t=it was meant to be b<x.
but with the the reason i wrote that the first derivative of the wavefunction is not continuous at the boundary x=-a, and b was cause i thought that when on the otherside of a boundary the potential->infinity...
the attachment here shows a potential well and i am practicing writing down wave functions in each region and boundary conditions (for this problem I suppose the boundaries would be x= -a, 0, b.
i think that for this problem i need 4 functions and i thought that they may be:
when
x<-a...
okay this isn't exactly me asking how to solve a question but just to verify the theory in my head.
i need to calculate the 4 lowest energy levels for a 3d box (that has sides (2a,a,a)) and show all the quantum numbers (i imagine it means the x,y,z components of n, l, ml) and give the...
so after thinking on it believe the ground state would stay the same as is the zero point energy which doesn't change, but then would the 1st excited state have enough energy to become unbound from the potential well