Hello.
I read about smooth infinitesimal analysis and I have several questions:
1.What does "ε.1" and "ε.0" mean in this proof? (photo1) (https://publish.uwo.ca/~jbell/basic.pdf , page 5-6)
2. For what purpose do we use Kock-Lawvere axiom when we deal with law of excluded middle? (photo2)...
Hello.
How to prove that in smooth infinitesimal analysis every function on R is continuous? (Every function whose domain is R, the real numbers, is continuous and infinitely differentiable.)
Thanks.
I read in this source: http://www.bndhep.net/Lab/Math/Calculus.htm
The fact that x^2 becomes insignificant compared to x for very small values of x is a fundamental principle of infinitesimal calculus. We say x is infinitesimal when we allow its value to approach zero, but never actually reach...
What is relation between ##\Delta x## and ##dx##? If we want to get term with dx then we discard ##\Delta x^2## and other high-order terms in expression. Is it true?
Hello.
As is known, we can neglect high-order term in expression ##f(x+dx)-f(x)##. For ##y=x^2##: ##dy=2xdx+dx^2##, ##dy=2xdx##.
I read that infinitesimals have property: ##dx+dx^2=dx##
I tried to neglect high-order terms in integral sum (##dx^2## and ##4dx^2## and so on) and I obtained wrong...
Ok. We have 2 similar expressions: 1. ##2x \Delta x + \Delta x^2## where ##\Delta x## is variable and 2. ##x+x^2## where ##x## is variable.
In 1. case we'll get ##2xdx## when ## \Delta x## tends to zero.
In 2. case we'll get ##x## when ##x## tends to zero.
But in the first case we'll get...
Hello.
Let's assume that we have ##2x \Delta x + \Delta x^2##. When ##\Delta x## tends to zero we can neglect ##\Delta x^2## and we'll get ##2xdx##.
Let's assume that we have ##x + x^2##. When ##x## tends to zero we can neglect ##x^2##. Will we get an infinitesimal ##x## as such as ##dx##?
Thanks.
Hello, @fresh_42
You wrote that "In the first case ##dr \approx \Delta \, r## is an infinitesimal small change in ##r## and in the second it is an infinitesimal small piece of ##r##, so ##dr \approx h##."
I have difficulty understanding this topic.
How is it possible that ##dr \approx \Delta...
Hello.
There are 4 types of infinitesimals:
1) dx=1/N, N is the number of elemets of the set of the natural numbers (letter N is used to indicate the cardinality of the set of natural numbers)
2) Hyperreal numbers: ε=1/ω, ω is number greater than any real number.
3) Surreal numbers: { 0, 1...
Hello!
As is known, \Delta y = dy for infinitesimally small dx. It's true.
But if we have graph we may see that \Delta y isn't equal to dy even for infinitesimally small dx. Why is that so?
Thanks!