What is #quantum: Definition and 5 Discussions

A quantum computer is a computer that exploits quantum mechanical phenomena.
At small scales, physical matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves, and quantum computing leverages this behavior, specifically quantum superposition and entanglement, using specialized hardware that supports the preparation and manipulation of quantum states.
Classical physics cannot explain the operation of these quantum devices, and a scalable quantum computer could perform some calculations exponentially faster than any modern "classical" computer. In particular, a large-scale quantum computer could break widely used encryption schemes and aid physicists in performing physical simulations; however, the current state of the art is largely experimental and impractical, with several obstacles to useful applications.
The basic unit of information in quantum computing is the qubit, similar to the bit in traditional digital electronics. Unlike a classical bit, a qubit can exist in a superposition of its two "basis" states, which loosely means that it is in both states simultaneously. When measuring a qubit, the result is a probabilistic output of a classical bit. If a quantum computer manipulates the qubit in a particular way, wave interference effects can amplify the desired measurement results. The design of quantum algorithms involves creating procedures that allow a quantum computer to perform calculations efficiently and quickly.
Physically engineering high-quality qubits has proven challenging.
If a physical qubit is not sufficiently isolated from its environment, it suffers from quantum decoherence, introducing noise into calculations.
National governments have invested heavily in experimental research that aims to develop scalable qubits with longer coherence times and lower error rates.
Two of the most promising technologies are superconductors (which isolate an electrical current by eliminating electrical resistance) and ion traps (which confine a single ion using electromagnetic fields).
In principle, a non-quantum (classical) computer can solve the same computational problems as a quantum computer, given enough time.
Quantum advantage comes in the form of time complexity rather than computability, and quantum complexity theory shows that some quantum algorithms for carefully selected tasks require exponentially fewer computational steps than the best known non-quantum algorithms. Such tasks can in theory be solved on a large-scale quantum computer whereas classical computers would not finish computations in any reasonable amount of time. However, quantum speedup is not universal or even typical across computational tasks, since basic tasks such as sorting are proven to not allow any asymptotic quantum speedup. Claims of quantum supremacy have drawn significant attention to the discipline, but are demonstrated on contrived tasks, while near-term practical use cases remain limited.
Optimism about quantum computing is fueled by a broad range of new theoretical hardware possibilities facilitated by quantum physics, but the improving understanding of quantum computing limitations counterbalances this optimism. In particular, quantum speedups have been traditionally estimated for noiseless quantum computers, whereas the impact of noise and the use of quantum error-correction can undermine low-polynomial speedups.

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  1. M

    A QFT Superposition of Final States

    In QFT one important calculation is the Scattering amplitude the overlap between an initial state and a final state due to an interaction. For example the S Matrix element for electron electron scattering is the overlap between an initial 2 electron state in the far past and a 2 electron state...
  2. M

    A Question about Propagators in QFT

    In Quantum Field Theory the Propagator is computed as the time ordered expectation value of products of fields. $$\langle 0|\hat{T}\{\phi(x)\phi(y))\}|0\rangle$$ I want to know does it describe the amplitude for a particle to propagate from one point to another like in QM where the...
  3. M

    A Wigner Weisskopf method for time varying Perturbation

    In Time Dependent Perturbation Theory for coupling of a discrete state to a continuum you use the Wigner Weisskopf method to describe how the initial state gets depopulated and final states populated and the line shape for the case of a constant step potential perturbation. However many cases of...
  4. P

    I Solving the Schrodinger Equation for a particle being measured

    In Quantum Mechanics the measurement problem is that once a system is measured the wavefunction inexplicably collapses into an eigenstate we all know this. Many believe the localization is due to interacting with the detector. If thats so why doesnt anyone try and model this interaction...
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    I Question about Commutators and Uncertainty

    In Quantum Mechanics a particle cannot have both a defined position and momentum due to the uncertainty principle we all know that. A reason for this is because the Position and Momentum Operators dont commute but it can be demonstrated with Fourier Transforms. I know how to mathematically...