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12/20/04 Chat with Dr. Kaku #1

  1. Dec 20, 2004 #1
    'Classroom','CoryR','OK I think we are ready to get started.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Welcome to tonight's Q&A Chat Event with Theoretical Physicist Dr. Michio Kaku. We're glad to have you with us Dr. Kaku, how are you doing this evening?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Fine';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I am ready.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Great. Let's get right to our first question.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','OK';
    'Classroom','CoryR','catch.yossarian asks:

    What do you think about the whole deal with the Hubble Space Telescope? Are you siding with leaving it up as long as it can (estimated at around 2012), or bringing down what many consider US culture and letting it burn up in the atmosphere? Would you want replacement for Hubble or do you think its fine to stick to ground-based observation?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I think we should salvage it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','There are many breakthroughs in land based telescopes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','that make some aspects of the Hubble obsolete';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but one shuttle mission would be';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','sufficient to salvage it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','A robotic mission might not work';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but humans can certainly repair it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','It would be a shame to lose a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','billion dollar work horse.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','But advances in laser/assisted telescopes,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but the new giant telescopes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','make the Hubble less revolutionary than before/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','startdust asks: Hello Dr. Kaku: I have a basic understanding of particles but I am perplexed about how they form from the big bang. Why are they so small and keep getting smaller and smaller?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','No, the big bang produced a large';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','flux of particles,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and these particles keep on interacting, rather than getting smaller.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For example,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','there was probably a matter/anti-matter';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','collision at the big bang';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which createda huge flux of gamma rays';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and the particles we see in nature';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','including us';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','are a tiny remnant of that explosion/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','chroot asks: Do you think that string theory will ever be testable? If so, how many years will it be?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Yes!';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Contrary to the critics';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','string theory can be tested.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','First, in 2011';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','LISA will be sent into orbit';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','It will have 3 satellites';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','connected by 3 laser beams';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','about 3 million miles across.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Any gravity wave which hits';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','LISA will cause an interference';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which can be detected.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','LISA should be able to confirm or disprove';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','inflation and various string-type';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','cosmologies which have been proposed.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Also, in 2007';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the LHC will be turned on';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which may detect sparticles';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or super particles';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which are higher octaves';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of the string.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Also, dark matter';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which makes up 23%';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of the universe';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is probably made of sparticles.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Any day, someone may find dark matter in their';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','lab detector.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','LISA may give direct evidence for strings';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','while the LHC and dark matter';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','experiments may give';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','indirect proof of string theory.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So the cynics do not understand how advanced';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the experiments really are.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Plus, many groups are looking for experimental evidence of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','higher dijmensions,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','such as at Unif. of Colorado.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','But so far, these experiments have not found';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','any definitive proof of the existence of higher dimensions/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','phreak asks: In the book "Visions", you were very optimistic about the future of science and technology. Firstly, have you lost this optimism about the future or are you still looking forward to the future? Secondly, are you disappointed with the current state of technology in the year 2004?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In my o';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','book Visions';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I made several predictions';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','all of which are being realized.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So far, the predictions I made are all becoming true.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The predictions are up to 2020, and some even to 2050';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so I expect that some predictions will eventually';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','fail, but so far all the predictions are holding.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','This is because, for the book, I interviewed 150 top';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','scientists, who are inventing the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','future, so it was, in some sense,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','easy to make correct predictions,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','because I was interviewing the people';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','who are making the future come true/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','and what do you think of the current state of Technology in 2004?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Its hard to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','predict year by year';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so, in the book, I';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','made predictions every five years or so.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','At any particular year, its hard to show';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','that there are big breakthroughs.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','This month, for example,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for the first time in history';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','doctors in Germany';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','took a 7 year old girls stem cells';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and grew 19 sq. inches of bone, enough to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','cover a huge hole in her skull.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','She lacked large chunks of her skull due to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','a big accident, and had to wear a helmet';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','even though her brain could be seen right';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','through all the large cracks in her skull.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','But human stem cells were grown that finally covered';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','her skull, which is a real breakthrough in stem';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','cell research/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Stars asks: When might the next big breakthrough in String Theory arrive?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Every 10 years or so, there is a huge breakthrough';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in string theory.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The theory was born in 1968';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but in 1984';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','it was shown to be';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','free of any inconsistencies.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Then in 1994';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','it was shown that there is a higher';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','11 dimensional theory called M';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','theory';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so now, after 10 more years, we should be due for';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','another breakthrough, I hope.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The theory is quite hard, and it is smarter than us.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','It is truly amazing that the theory has such deapth and';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is so full of mathematical richness.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Unfortunately, we are still inthe process of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','finding out where all these miracles come from.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Remember, wrong theories are usually';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','quite shallow and ultimately sterile';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','while string theory seems to be inexaustible/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','rtharbaugh asks: Dr. Kaku, do you still believe that it is impossible for us to visualize in four or more dimensions? I am thinking of your statement on page ten of hyperspace.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','No. We';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','cannot visualize higher dimensional';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','objects';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','because';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','our brains only evolved';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in three dimensions';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but computers';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','have no problem.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As a child';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I would try to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','leap into hyperspace';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but always failed';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','This convinced me that our brains really';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','are not';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','developed';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','enough to manipulate';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','higher dimensions.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','When I write a paper in 10 or 11';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','dimensions,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I try to keep the diagrams to a minimum';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and just use equations';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','because it takes too long';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to try to use aids';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and tricks';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to visualize 10';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or 11 dimensions.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Stars asks: What is the difference between hyperspace and the multiverse, or are they one in the same?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','They are different.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hyperspace simply means dimensions beyond our own 4 D space-time.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The multiverse simply means parallel universe.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','They are related';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in that a multiverse can exist within';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','hyperspace.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','We can have, for example,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','floating 4D bubbles';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in a 11D multiverse.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Thus, the multiverse idea can be';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','embedded within';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','hyperspace.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','At present, there is';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','no experimental proof';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of either concept, however/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','courtrigrad asks: Dr Kaku, what is your advice to aspiring mathematicians and physicists?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The most importnat';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','piece of advise';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is to keep your';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','sense of wonderment';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','alive.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','You have to have a lot of math to become a physicist';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but the math is only a tool to visualize the physical';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','picture.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','That is the difference between';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','math and physics.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Physicis is based on a handful';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of physical principles';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','such as relativity and the quantum';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','principle.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Thus, just a handful of principles';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','drive the entire universe.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','But';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to describe these';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','principles and work out their details,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','we need math.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, math is book keeping';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to keep track of the principle.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As a physicist, you have to keep that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','picture or principle firmly in mind';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and share in the wonderment over';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','that principle';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and not be bogged';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','down in the algebra.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In sum, we always have to keep that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','wonderment alive, but not get';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','bogged down in the math';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','although we need plenty of it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As a child,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I read a lot of science';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','fiction,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but I';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','realized that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','sooner';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or later I would become a crack pot';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','always talking about higher dimensions';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or time travel,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','unless I seriously learned the math';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I never regretted it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Now, I get tons of emails';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','from people who are still';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','fascinated by science fiction.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but never had the opportunity';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or dedication to learn the math.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In other words, the language of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','nature is math.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','We can share in the wonderment over';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','nature'';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','s beauty';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but eventually we have to speak';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','her language/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','rick1138 asks: Which sparticles would you hope to see in the LHC experiments?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I hope we find dark matter.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Dark matter, which makes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','up 23%';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of the universe';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is probably made of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','photinos';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which are a higher excitation of the photon.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','MOst of the universe';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is made of dark matter and dark energy.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The higher elements only';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','make up .03%';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of the universe.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, I hope the LHC discovers';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the HIggs boson, the last';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','missing piece';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','of the standard model,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','plus dark matter sparticles.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','However, these particles are';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','neutral and hence leave';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','no tracks';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in our instruments';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and hence we can';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','only find them';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','when they collide with charged';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','particles.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Remember, the LHC will be turned on in just a ffew';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','more years/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Stars asks: why is 2005 considered the 'World Year of Physics'?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Because';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','in 1905';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Einstein discovered special';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','relativity.
    It was';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','a miracle year,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','like when Newton was 23 years old and';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','discovered calculus, the binomial theorem';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and the universal';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','law of gravity in one year.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In 1905, Einstein';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','introduced the photon,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','got special relavitiy';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','proved the existence of atoms';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and got E = mc squared';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','all in one year';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','while he was';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','unemployed as a physicist';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','(He was working as a lowly';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','clerk in the Bern patent office)/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','CaptainOfTheDay asks: I find Physics fascinating, but my physics teacher is ridiculously boring. Do you have any advice on how I keep interested in my Physics class rather than just zoning out?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','My own physics teacher';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','was also boring';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Almost all physicists I know';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','maintained their';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','interest in';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','physics in spite of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','their physics teacher.';
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Dec 20, 2004 #2
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Usually, the physics teacher is someone';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','who teaches something';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','else and, at the last minute,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','gets assigned to teach physics';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so the fire, determination,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','enthusiasm,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','are all missing.
    ]';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I have';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','also interviewed many physicists';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','including Nobel laureates';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and they tell me that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','at age 10 or';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so, they got hooked';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','by physics';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but usually
    f';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for someother reason';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','than classroom work';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For many, it was a visit to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the planetarium or';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','working with a telescope';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or gyroscope, or compass,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or working with a mentor.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For Einstein, it was playing';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','with a compass and having';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','a close mentor.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For Nobel Laureate Steve Weinberg';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','it was gett ing a chemistry kit.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For Enrico Fermi, it was playing';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','with a gyroscope.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For NObel Laureate';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Isadore Rabi, it';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','was reading an astronomy book.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In each case,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','it was fascination with a device or taliking to a mentor';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','rather than school work';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','that led them to a life in physics.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So don't get discouraged if you know';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','more than your physics teacher, or';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','if your physics teacher is boring.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Its a test of a budding physicist to be in love with
    ]';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','physics even if our acquaintences are not/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Duarh asks: On another note, what do you think of the experimental results from SuperKamiokonde that indicate that neutrinos have mass and do you see any signs that theoretical physics is catching up with explaining those results (and perhaps coming up with a more general method for theoretically predicting elementary particle masses)?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Actually, the neutrino';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','experiments are not very surprising.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For the past 30 years,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','physicists have tried to go beyond the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','standard model, with massless neutrinos';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','by adding masses and different breaking schemes.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So the announcement that the neutrino has mass';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','was not very surprising to a theorist';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','because we had already worked out the math';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','decades ago.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The problem with the standard model is';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','that is too successful.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, for the past 30 years, we';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','have had to speculate on tiny, tiny
    d';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','deviations from the standard model,
    a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and neutrino mass was the obvious candidate';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','so massive neutrinos are well understood/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.';
    'Classroom','CoryR','Stars asks: Are you working on any new books?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I just finished';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','writing a new book,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','due this January';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','called Parallel Worlds.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Doubleday is the publisher.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','It deals with the latest in cosmology, the multiverse';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','parallel universes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and ends with a highly';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','speculative idea.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Since the universe will probably die in a Big Freeze,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','according to the latest data';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','it means that all intelligent life';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','will also necessarily die';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','when the universe dies';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','because no machine can operate at near';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','absolute zero.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, my attitude is that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','biilions to trillions of years from now';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','any advanced';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','civilization';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','facing ithe Big';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Freeze will have to leave the universe.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','This means that a Type III';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','civilization, or may be a Type IV';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','civilization, may have enough energy';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to master the Planck';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','energy';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which the energy at whidh';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','space time becomes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','unstable.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','This means wormholes and baby';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','universes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','open up at that fantastic energy.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, any advanced civilization,
    f';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','facing the Big Freeze';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','may be forced to reach the Planck energy';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and drill a hole in space';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and leave our';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','universe in a hyperdimensional';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','lifeboat';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to another warmer';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','universe.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The book comes out in 2 weeks';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and I am going on a 2 week book tour in January,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and England,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','to discuss the book.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','We will post the schdule of cities
    '';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','where I will';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','be speaking on';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','my web site';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','www.mkaku.org.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So hopefully';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Parallel Worlds will';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','introduce';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the public to the concept of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','M theory';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the big freeze';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the multiverse,
    a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and perhaps leaving the universe';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','courtrigrad asks: How would you suggest for a student to properly learn calculus? Would you reccommend classic books such as Courant, Apostol, or Spivak, or some of the newer books?';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Personally, I foudn that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','newer books are sometimes';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','not the best books to learn from.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For example, the first book on physics';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or calculus should be a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','cook book.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','NOt elegant, but very useful';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for learning purposes.
    Later in';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','life, we can learn from more';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','sophisticated books.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','For example,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Nobel laureate';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Richard Feynman';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','wrote a Freshman';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','physics textbook';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which was';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','very elegant.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','However, it was a disaster';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for the students.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Most students, I recall,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','failed the course';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','or did incredibly bad';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','at Cal Tech.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Hence, the best book to read for a beginner';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is a cook book that simply presents the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','problems and solutions, rather than
    a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','advanced books,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','like Feynmans book,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which are';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','elegant, beautiful, and a work of art';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but a disaster when it comes to teaching
    f';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','freshman.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','The only people who';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','benefitted from';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Feynmans';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','book were';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','physics professors who
    a';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','already knew';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the material but';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','needed someone to';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','present the most elegant';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and beautiful approach.';

    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So, for beginners, I suggest';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','a cook book that presents all the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','rules and recipies,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','rather than an elegant book';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','which is so beautiful it is useless';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for a beginnger/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','We have time for one last question,';
    'Classroom','CoryR','GraduateCenter_Student asks: How would one get a deeper understanding about quantum physics? I took a graduate class on it but some concepts still elude me.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Dont
    '';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Dont fear.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Even profs. of physics';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','are still confused by it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As Niels Bohr';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','once said, anyone who is';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','not shocked by the';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','quantum theory';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','does not understand it.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As Feynman once said, the quantum theory is totally absurd, but that's';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the way the universe is.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','As a series of rules, written down';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','by Heisenberg';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and Schrodinger,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','quantum theory is actually easy.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Its just a seconed';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','order';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','differential equation.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','But the meaning of this';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','equation has profound implications.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Even today, physicists debate the many';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','worlds theory,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','decoherence';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Wigner's friend,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','etc.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','At present, there is NO';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','universal';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','philosophy accepted by';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','all physicists';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','for the quantum theory.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','In my book, Parallel Worlds, I devote a whole';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','chapter to the various theories that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','have been proposed, but';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','I think the leading';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','theory right now is';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','decoherence/many worlds.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Decoherence says that, if you have';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','a dead cat';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and a live cat';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','simultaneously in a box';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','describing the same cat,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','then the two cats';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','decohere from each other,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','hence the cat really is dead or';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','alive, but in different universes.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Since we do not know which universe';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','is the prefered universe, we have to live';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','with the fact that, say.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','50% of the time';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','the cat is dead';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and 50% of the time the cat is alive,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','and hence the universe splits in half';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','into two';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','separate universes.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Each universe is perfectly well';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','behaved, and people in that';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','universe think';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','their universe is the correct one,';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','but there are an infinite number of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','such universes.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','So even today, 75 years after the quantum theory was';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','introduced, we are stilll debating the meaning of';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','Schrodinger's cat.';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','See my book for more details, and see my';
    'Classroom','DrMichioKaku','web site www.mkaku.org for updates/';
    'Classroom','CoryR','That wraps up our event for tonight. We'd like to thank Dr. Kaku for stopping by and ask all of you to join us again tomorrow at 9PM EST for another Q&A with Dr. Michio Kaku. Thanks for coming and goodnight!';
    'Classroom','GregBernhardt','Transcripts will be provided in the forums shorty and the forums will back up and running. Thanks for coming, stop in tomorrow and wednesday same time!';
     
  4. Dec 21, 2004 #3
    Also sorry for the short phrases, we had a problem with character limits with our program. However it has been fixed and Dr. Kaku will type longer responses without so many returns.
     
  5. Dec 24, 2004 #4

    Integral

    User Avatar
    Staff Emeritus
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member

    CoryR
    OK I think we are ready to get started. Welcome to tonight's Q&A Chat Event with Theoretical Physicist Dr. Michio Kaku. We're glad to have you with us Dr. Kaku, how are you doing this evening?';

    DrMichioKaku
    Fine, I am ready.

    CoryR
    Great. Let's get right to our first question.

    DrMichioKaku
    OK

    CoryR

    catch.yossarian asks:
    What do you think about the whole deal with the Hubble Space Telescope? Are you siding with leaving it up as long as it can (estimated at around 2012), or bringing down what many consider US culture and letting it burn up in the atmosphere? Would you want replacement for Hubble or do you think its fine to stick to ground-based observation?

    DrMichioKaku:
    I think we should salvage it.There are many breakthroughs in land based telescopes that make some aspects of the Hubble obsolete but one shuttle mission would be sufficient to salvage it. A robotic mission might not work but humans can certainly repair it. It would be a shame to lose a billion dollar work horse. But advances in laser/assisted telescopes, but the new giant telescopes make the Hubble less revolutionary than before'

    CoryR:
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    startdust asks:
    Hello Dr. Kaku: I have a basic understanding of particles but I am perplexed about how they form from the big bang. Why are they so small and keep getting smaller and smaller?';

    DrMichioKaku:
    No, the big bang produced a large flux of particles and these particles keep on interacting, rather than getting smaller. For example, there was probably a matter/anti-matter collision at the big bang which created a huge flux of gamma rays and the particles we see in nature including us are a tiny remnant of that explosion.

    CoryR
    chroot asks:
    Do you think that string theory will ever be testable? If so, how many years will it be?

    DrMichioKaku
    Yes! Contrary to the critics string theory can be tested. First, in 2011 LISA will be sent into orbit It will have 3 satellites connected by 3 laser beams about 3 million miles across. Any gravity wave which hits LISA will cause an interference which can be detected. LISA should be able to confirm or disprove inflation and various string-type cosmologies which have been proposed. Also, in 2007 the LHC will be turned on which may detect sparticles or super particles, which are higher octaves of the string. Also, dark matter which makes up 23% of the universe is probably made of sparticles. Any day, someone may find dark matter in their lab detector. LISA may give direct evidence for strings while the LHC and dark matter experiments may give indirect proof of string theory. So the cynics do not understand how advanced the experiments really are. Plus, many groups are looking for experimental evidence of higher dijmensions, such as at Unif. of Colorado. But so far, these experiments have not found any definitive proof of the existence of higher dimensions.

    CoryR
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    phreak asks:
    In the book "Visions", you were very optimistic about the future of science and technology. Firstly, have you lost this optimism about the future or are you still looking forward to the future? Secondly, are you disappointed with the current state of technology in the year 2004?';

    DrMichioKaku
    In my o'book Visions I made several predictions all of which are being realized. So far, the predictions I made are all becoming true. The predictions are up to 2020, and some even to 2050 so I expect that some predictions will eventually fail, but so far all the predictions are holding. This is because, for the book, I interviewed 150 top scientists, who are inventing the future, so it was, in some sense easy to make correct predictions because I was interviewing the people who are making the future come true.

    CoryR
    and what do you think of the current state of Technology in 2004?

    DrMichioKaku
    Its hard to predict year by year so, in the book, I made predictions every five years or so. At any particular year, its hard to show that there are big breakthroughs. This month, for example, for the first time in history doctors in Germany took a 7 year old girls stem cells and grew 19 sq. inches of bone, enough to cover a huge hole in her skull. She lacked large chunks of her skull due to a big accident, and had to wear a helmet even though her brain could be seen right through all the large cracks in her skull. But human stem cells were grown that finally covered her skull, which is a real breakthrough in stem cell research.

    CoryR

    Stars asks:
    When might the next big breakthrough in String Theory arrive?

    DrMichioKaku
    Every 10 years or so, there is a huge breakthrough in string theory. The theory was born in 1968 but in 1984 it was shown to be free of any inconsistencies. Then in 1994 it was shown that there is a higher 11 dimensional theory called M theory so now, after 10 more years, we should be due for another breakthrough, I hope. The theory is quite hard, and it is smarter than us It is truly amazing that the theory has such deapth and is so full of mathematical richness. Unfortunately, we are still in the process of finding out where all these miracles come from. Remember, wrong theories are usually quite shallow and ultimately sterile while string theory seems to be inexaustible.

    CoryR
    rtharbaugh asks:
    Dr. Kaku, do you still believe that it is impossible for us to visualize in four or more dimensions? I am thinking of your statement on page ten of hyperspace.

    DrMichioKaku
    No. We cannot visualize higher dimensional objects because our brains only evolved in three dimensions but computers have no problem. As a child I would try to leap into hyperspace but always failed This convinced me that our brains really are not developed enough to manipulate higher dimensions. When I write a paper in 10 or 11 dimensions, I try to keep the diagrams to a minimum and just use equations because it takes too long to try to use aids and tricks to visualize 10 or 11 dimensions.

    CoryR
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    Stars asks:
    What is the difference between hyperspace and the multiverse, or are they one in the same?

    DrMichioKaku
    They are different. Hyperspace simply means dimensions beyond our own 4 D space-time. The multiverse simply means parallel universe. They are related in that a multiverse can exist within hyperspace. We can have, for example, floating 4D bubbles in a 11D multiverse. Thus, the multiverse idea can be embedded within hyperspace. At present, there is no experimental proof of either concept, however.

    CoryR
    courtrigrad asks: Dr Kaku, what is your advice to aspiring mathematicians and physicists?';

    DrMichioKaku
    The most important piece of advise is to keep your sense of wonderment alive. You have to have a lot of math to become a physicist but the math is only a tool to visualize the physical picture. That is the difference between math and physics. Physicis is based on a handful of physical principles such as relativity and the quantum principle. Thus, just a handful of principles drive the entire universe. But to describe these principles and work out their details, we need math. Hence, math is book keeping to keep track of the principle. As a physicist, you have to keep that picture or principle firmly in mind and share in the wonderment over that principle and not be bogged down in the algebra. In sum, we always have to keep that wonderment alive, but not get bogged down in the math although we need plenty of it. As a child, I read a lot of science fiction, but I realized that sooner or later I would become a crack pot always talking about higher dimensions or time travel, unless I seriously learned the math' I never regretted it. Now, I get tons of emails from people who are still fascinated by science fiction. but never had the opportunity or dedication to learn the math. In other words, the language of nature is math. We can share in the wonderment over nature's beauty but eventually we have to speak her language.


    CoryR
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    rick1138 asks:
    Which sparticles would you hope to see in the LHC experiments?

    DrMichioKaku
    I hope we find dark matter. Dark matter, which makes up 23% of the universe is probably made of photinos which are a higher excitation of the photon. MOst of the universe is made of dark matter and dark energy. The higher elements only make up of the universe. Hence, I hope the LHC discovers the HIggs boson, the last missing piece of the standard model, plus dark matter sparticles. However, these particles are neutral and hence leave no tracks in our instruments and hence we can only find them when they collide with charged particles. Remember, the LHC will be turned on in just a few more years.

    CoryR
    Stars asks
    why is 2005 considered the 'World Year of Physics'?

    DrMichioKaku
    Because in 1905 Einstein discovered special relativity. It was a miracle year, like when Newton was 23 years old and discovered calculus, the binomial theorem and the universal law of gravity in one year. In 1905, Einstein introduced the photon got special relavitiy proved the existence of atoms and got E = mc squared all in one year while he was unemployed as a physicist (He was working as a lowly clerk in the Bern patent office).

    CoryR
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    CaptainOfTheDay asks:
    I find Physics fascinating, but my physics teacher is ridiculously boring. Do you have any advice on how I keep interested in my Physics class rather than just zoning out?

    DrMichioKaku
    My own physics teacher was also boring Almost all physicists I know maintained their interest in physics in spite of their physics teacher. Usually, the physics teacher is someone who teaches something else and, at the last minute, gets assigned to teach physics so the fire, determination enthusiasm, are all missing. I have also interviewed many physicists including Nobel laureates and they tell me that at age 10 or so, they got hooked by physics' but usually for some other reason than classroom work For many, it was a visit to the planetarium working with a telescope or gyroscope, or compass, or working with a mentor. For Einstein, it was playing with a compass and having a close mentor. For Nobel Laureate Steve Weinberg it was getting a chemistry kit. For Enrico Fermi, it was playing with a gyroscope. For NObel Laureate Isadore Rabi, it was reading an astronomy book. In each case, it was fascination with a device or talking to a mentor rather than school work that led them to a life in physics. So don't get discouraged if you know more than your physics teacher, or if your physics teacher is boring. Its a test of a budding physicist to be in love with physics even if our acquaintences are not.


    CoryR
    Duarh asks:
    On another note, what do you think of the experimental results from SuperKamiokonde that indicate that neutrinos have mass and do you see any signs that theoretical physics is catching up with explaining those results (and perhaps coming up with a more general method for theoretically predicting elementary particle masses)?

    DrMichioKaku
    Actually, the neutrino experiments are not very surprising. For the past 30 years, physicists have tried to go beyond the standard model, with massless neutrinos by adding masses and different breaking schemes. So the announcement that the neutrino has mass was not very surprising to a theorist because we had already worked out the math decades ago. The problem with the standard model is that is too successful. Hence, for the past 30 years, we have had to speculate on tiny, tiny deviations from the standard model, and neutrino mass was the obvious candidate so massive neutrinos are well understood.

    CoryR
    REMINDER: Be sure to send in your questions to QuestionBot by double-clicking on the nickname to the right.

    Stars asks: Are you working on any new books?

    DrMichioKaku
    I just finished writing a new book, due this January called Parallel Worlds. Doubleday is the publisher.' It deals with the latest in cosmology, the multiverse parallel universes and ends with a highly speculative idea. Since the universe will probably die in a Big Freeze, according to the latest data it means that all intelligent life will also necessarily die when the universe dies because no machine can operate at near absolute zero. Hence, my attitude is that biilions to trillions of years from now any advanced civilization facing ithe Big Freeze will have to leave the universe. This means that a Type III civilization, or may be a Type IV civilization, may have enough energy to master the Planck energy which the energy at which space time becomes unstable. This means wormholes and baby universes open up at that fantastic energy. Hence, any advanced civilization, facing the Big Freeze may be forced to reach the Planck energy and drill a hole in space and leave our universe in a hyperdimensional lifeboat to another warmer universe. The book comes out in 2 weeks and I am going on a 2 week book tour in January and England to discuss the book. We will post the schdule of cities where I will be speaking on my web site www.mkaku.org.' So hopefully Parallel Worlds will introduce the public to the concept of M theory the big freeze the multiverse, and perhaps leaving the universe.

    CoryR

    courtrigrad asks:
    How would you suggest for a student to properly learn calculus? Would you reccommend classic books such as Courant, Apostol, or Spivak, or some of the newer books?

    DrMichioKaku
    Personally, I foudn that the newer books are sometimes not the best books to learn from. For example, the first book on physics or calculus should be a cook book. NOt elegant, but very useful for learning purposes. Later in life, we can learn from more sophisticated books. For example, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman wrote a Freshman physics textbook which was very elegant. However, it was a disaster for the students. Most students, I recall, failed the course or did incredibly bad at Cal Tech. Hence, the best book to read for a beginner is a cook book that simply presents the problems and solutions, rather than advanced books, like Feynmans book, which are elegant, beautiful, and a work of art but a disaster when it comes to teaching freshman. The only people who benefitted from Feynmans' book were physics professors who already knew the material but needed someone to present the most elegant and beautiful approach. So, for beginners, I suggest a cook book that presents all the rules and recipies, rather than an elegant book which is so beautiful it is useless for a beginnger.

    CoryR
    We have time for one last question

    GraduateCenter_Student asks: How would one get a deeper understanding about quantum physics? I took a graduate class on it but some concepts still elude me.

    DrMichioKaku
    Dont fear. Even profs. of physics are still confused by it. As Niels Bohr once said, anyone who is not shocked by the quantum theory does not understand it. As Feynman once said, the quantum theory is totally absurd, but that's the way the universe is. As a series of rules, written down by Heisenberg and Schrodinger, quantum theory is actually easy. Its just a seconed order differential equation. But the meaning of this equation has profound implications. Even today, physicists debate the many worlds theory, decoherence Wigner's friend, etc. At present, there is NO philosophy accepted by all physicists for the quantum theory. In my book, Parallel Worlds, I devote a whole chapter to the various theories that have been proposed, but I think the leading theory right now is decoherence/many worlds. Decoherence says that, if you have a dead cat and a live cat simultaneously in a box describing the same cat then the two cats decohere from each other hence the cat really is dead or alive, but in different universes. Since we do not know which universe is the prefered universe, we have to live with the fact that, say. 50% of the time the cat is dead and 50% of the time the cat is alive and hence the universe splits in hal into two separate universes. Each universe is perfectly well behaved, and people in that universe think their universe is the correct one but there are an infinite number of such universes. So even today, 75 years after the quantum theory was introduced, we are still debating the meaning of Schrodinger's cat. See my book for more details, and see my web site www.mkaku.org for updates.

    CoryR
    That wraps up our event for tonight. We'd like to thank Dr. Kaku for stopping by and ask all of you to join us again tomorrow at 9PM EST for another Q&A with Dr. Michio Kaku. Thanks for coming and goodnight!

    GregBernhardt
    Transcripts will be provided in the forums shorty and the forums will back up and running. Thanks for coming, stop in tomorrow and wednesday same time!
     
  6. Dec 24, 2004 #5
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