kanki
I have some questions here about Benzene.
So the presence of one substituent in a benzene ring will affect the ease and position of any further substituent group, such like $-CH_3,NO_2,Cl$.
And it's known that the Ortho,para-directing groups or electron donating groups are ring activating, consists of single bond, and will make the benzene ring easier to be attacked.
My question is, why is it that the -Cl group is electron donating? i thought it'll pull the delocalised electron in the ring and stabilise it?

## Answers and Replies

leright
kanki said:
I have some questions here about Benzene.
So the presence of one substituent in a benzene ring will affect the ease and position of any further substituent group, such like $-CH_3,NO_2,Cl$.
And it's known that the Ortho,para-directing groups or electron donating groups are ring activating, consists of single bond, and will make the benzene ring easier to be attacked.
My question is, why is it that the -Cl group is electron donating? i thought it'll pull the delocalised electron in the ring and stabilise it?

Halogens donate electrons by resonance, and withdraw electrons by induction through the bond. However, Cl's inductive withdrawing is stronger than its resonance donation, so it is overall a deactivating substituent for reactivity in EAS.

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kanki
So it is overall a deactivating substituent, and render the benzene ring unreactive. But why is it Ortho-para directing? Please explain...