Hi, i want to model an AC Servomotor where i assume that a dynamic load is attached to the shaft of AC Servomotor. the paper that i have attached to this post has ac servomotor model running without load thats why in equation 5 TL(s) (the load torque)=0 . Now i want to include TL(s) in the model which means that a load is connected to the shaft of the motor. in order to include TL(s) into the system i need to know the formulla of the TL(s) becouse i can not simply include TL(s) in the equation else i will not be able to get the final transfer function ( Theta(s)/E(s) ). So i am thinking to put in the components of the TL(s) into the equation such as T=KI or T=J(inertia) * a(accelaration). So May someone plz help me that what can be the correct equation of TL(s) in this case so i can subtitute in? or/and how can i include the load torque (TL(s)) into the motor model.