1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I have been going through a textbook trying to solve some of of these with somewhat formal proofs. This is a former Putnam exam question. (Seemingly the easiest one I have attempted, which worries me). Consider a polynomial function ƒ with real coefficients having the property ƒ(g(x)) = g(ƒ(x)) for all polynomial functions g with real coefficients. Determine and prove the nature of ƒ. 2. Relevant equations No equations, just the tricky fact that constant functions are polynomials. 3. The attempt at a solution A proof by contradiction that ƒ(x) is the identity function: We can consider the function h(x) = 1 and its derivative, which I will denote as g, namely to state the fact that ƒ((g+h)(x)) = ƒ(1) = g(ƒ(x)) + h(ƒ(x)), which then = ƒ(0) + ƒ(1); therefore ƒ(0) = 0. Now, suppose that ƒ is not the identity function, or, specifically, that ƒ(c) ≠ c. We can consider the polynomial function k(x) which has a zero at c but not at ƒ(c). Then ƒ(k(c)) = ƒ(0) = 0 ≠ k(ƒ(c)); a contradiction occurs. This proves that ƒ must be the identity function.