1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I'm looking for someone to clarify a strange result regarding angular magnification. For both mirrors and lens. 2. Relevant equations m(angular) = θ'/θ M(lateral) = h'/h = - d'/d θ ≈ h/d (for small angles) 3. The attempt at a solution Using the angle equation, I get a result that looks like: m(angular) = (h'/h) * (d/d') But since h'/h = -d'/d, I get m(angular) = -1, regardless of the angles, distances, etc. Is this wrong, or is it true that for small angles the magnification is actually always -1? Thanks to everyone in advance.