• Support PF! Buy your school textbooks, materials and every day products Here!

AP Physics: Momentum & Springs

  • #1
1. A mass M is connected to a wall by an ideal spring. The mass is on a frictionless surface. The mass is pushed toward the wall, compressing the spring by a distance X. Use the impulse-momentum theorem to demonstrate that the mass will reach a maximum velocity of X * (K / M)^1/2.

2. J = delta P, P = MV

3. J = delta P
Fn * t = MV - 0
-kx * t = MV What is t supposed to be? How can I finish this problem?
 
Last edited:

Answers and Replies

  • #2
Student100
Education Advisor
Gold Member
1,649
416
1. A mass M is connected to a wall by an ideal spring. The mass is on a frictionless surface. The mass is pushed toward the wall, compressing the spring by a distance X. Use the impulse-momentum theorem to demonstrate that the mass will reach a maximum velocity of X * (K / M)^1/2.

2. J = delta P, P = MV

3. J = delta P
Fn * t = MV - 0
-kx * t = MV What is t supposed to be? How can I finish this problem?

What is ##\frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}## and what would the question wanting the maximum imply?
 
  • #3
What is ##\frac{\Delta v}{\Delta t}## and what would the question wanting the maximum imply?
I see that delta V / delta T would be the acceleration and that the velocity would be greatest when acceleration is zero (maximum) but if I divide both sides by delta T I end up with:
-kx = m dV/dT
-kx = ma
Fn = ma
And I'm not really sure what I could do next...
 
  • #4
Student100
Education Advisor
Gold Member
1,649
416
I see that delta V / delta T would be the acceleration and that the velocity would be greatest when acceleration is zero (maximum) but if I divide both sides by delta T I end up with:
-kx = m dV/dT
-kx = ma
Fn = ma
And I'm not really sure what I could do next...
So you have ##a=\frac{-kx}{m}## or ##a={w^2}{x}##, is this looking familiar?
 
  • #5
I think I got it but can you please verify? I know that a = w^2 x is the acceleration in SHM, so I integrated the A(t) formula to get V(t) = xw * sin(wt) and velocity is greatest when sin(wt) = 1 so the maximum velocity is xw, or v = x * (k / m)^1/2.
 
  • #6
Student100
Education Advisor
Gold Member
1,649
416
I think I got it but can you please verify? I know that a = w^2 x is the acceleration in SHM, so I integrated the A(t) formula to get V(t) = xw * sin(wt) and velocity is greatest when sin(wt) = 1 so the maximum velocity is xw, or v = x * (k / m)^1/2.
Yes, ##v(t)=- \omega xsin(\omega t)## when you take the phase constant to be zero. So what you said originally was true, the maximum speed in this motion occurs when the acceleration is zero, as well as when the displacement from equilibrium is the same. (Also applies for the min!) ##V_{max/min}= \pm \omega A## depending on the direction of oscillation ##V_{max}= \sqrt{\frac{k}{m}} x## depending on your coordinate system choosen.

Is this the best way to show what you wanted to show? I can't think of another way from the impulse-momentum theorem off the top of my head, but looks good to me.
 
  • #7
Yup, this makes sense! Thanks for your help!
 

Related Threads for: AP Physics: Momentum & Springs

  • Last Post
Replies
2
Views
4K
  • Last Post
Replies
1
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
14
Views
2K
Replies
6
Views
1K
  • Last Post
Replies
3
Views
713
  • Last Post
Replies
5
Views
18K
  • Last Post
Replies
4
Views
783
Top