Many schools advertise their applied math graduate programs by answering the question "what kind of job does a mathematician do?" The answers all essentially say the same thing--something like "you can [strike]teach[/strike], work for a government agency, or work in industry." They are very bad at explaining in what roles, how, and how many. Can anyone help answer these questions? I am not interested in answers from people who are unqualified to give them--i.e. people who have no experience with this issue themselves. By visiting school websites, I've already gotten such answers. My undergraduate advisor is totally useless, by the way. Is it pointless to seek a job in industry unless I go to grad school for some kind of engineering? For instance, what roles in finance are realistic for someone with an applied math M.S. from a non-top10 school? What other industries come to mind, supposing I have 1.5-3.5 years' experience with C, C++, Python, and MATLAB, and did my research primarily in machine learning? Personal stories get 50 bonus points.