To all the employed physicists out there. When applying to the big places like the ones below, Lockheed, Raythen, Boeing, Northrop, GE, Bruker, Siemens, Varian, Philips, IBM, Intel, AMD Hitachi, Western Digital, Microsoft, etc.... Did you go through the HR black hole? I.e. just submit a resume through their website. Or did you have a contact? Did you include a cover letter? I ask because I've heard that HR won't even read the resume or cover letter, or the posting is antiquated (My follow up calls have found antiquated posts are pretty common. So far, I've wasted twelve hours applying for confirmed antiquated positions). Assuming you weren't a 100% match or you were changing fields from you PhD research, how did you go about demonstrating the transferability of your skill set?