# Area of Polar Curve Region: Finding the Error

• ILoveBaseball
In summary: Sum these, multiply by 2 and get your answer.In summary, the area of the region inside the polar curve r = 5*cos(theta) and outside the curve r = 3-1*cos(theta) is found by finding the area from 0 to pi/3 under the second curve and from pi/3 to pi/2 under the first curve, then multiplying by 2. This results in an area of approximately -4.10911954. However, it is important to draw a picture and think about the problem before plugging numbers into a calculator to ensure an accurate solution.
ILoveBaseball
Find the area of the region which is inside the polar curve $$r =5*cos(\theta)$$

and outside the curve $$r = 3-1*cos(\theta)$$

when i plugged those two functions into my calculator and found the bounds from 1.0471976 to 5.2359878.

my integral:
$$\int_{1.0471976}^{5.2359878} 1/2*(5*cos(\theta))^2 - 1/2*(3-1*cos)^2$$
and got a final answer of
-4.10911954 which is incorrect. anyone know what i did wrong?

You can't simply plug stuff into your calculator, then plug numbers into a formula without thinking and expect to get the right answer. The first thing you should always do is draw yourself a picture. The first fuction looks like a teardrop, with the point on the origin, and the axis of the tear drop being the x-axis, and the drop getting fatter to the right, and then rounding off. Key points (in Cartesian co-ordinates) will be (0,0) and (5,0). Also, this function will repeat its behaviour after pi. It will trace out a tear drop when theta goes from 0 to pi, and then trace over that same path again from pi to 2pi.

The second graph looks like an egg. You can think of an egg having a fat bottom and narrowing at the top. For this egg, the top will be to the left of the y-axis, and the bottom will be to the right (it's an egg lying on its side, with axis being the x-axis again). Key points: (2, 0), (0, 3), (-4, 0), (0, -3).

You should be able to see two points of intersection, one in quadrant I (x> 0, y>0), the other in quadrant IV (x>0, y<0). You know that intersection only happens when both curves have the same r values AND the same theta values, or the r value of one is the negative of the other AND the theta value of one is that plus pi of the other. You will only satisfy this condition when cos(theta) = 1/2. You should know that theta = 60 degrees here. Or you might remember that sin(30 degrees) = 1/2 and should be able to tell from this that cos(60 degrees) will be 1/2, i.e. you should never use a calculator (do they even allow to do so for tests anyways?) You can easily change 60 degrees into radians. Also, if cos(theta) is positive (like 1/2), then you can find values in quadrants I and IV for theta, so your other point of intersection will occur at -60 degrees.

Actually, you don't need that other point of intersection. You should see by symmetry that you can find the area by finding 2 x another area, where theta goes from 0 to pi/2. From 0 to pi/3, you will find the area under the second curve, and from pi/3 to pi/2, you will find the area under the first curve. Sum these, multiply by 2 and get your answer.

You can and should do this all without a calculator, and I can't imagine how you could do this without drawing pictures and thinking about it and just using a calculator. You should draw a picture, and verify the statements I've made:

1) The first fuction looks like a teardrop, with the point on the origin, and the axis of the tear drop being the x-axis, and the drop getting fatter to the right, and then rounding off. Key points (in Cartesian co-ordinates) will be (0,0) and (5,0).
2) The second graph looks like an egg. You can think of an egg having a fat bottom and narrowing at the top. For this egg, the top will be to the left of the y-axis, and the bottom will be to the right (it's an egg lying on its side, with axis being the x-axis again). Key points: (2, 0), (0, 3), (-4, 0), (0, -3).
3) You should be able to see two points of intersection, one in quadrant I (x> 0, y>0), the other in quadrant IV (x>0, y<0).
4) You know that intersection only happens when both curves have the same r values AND the same theta values, or the r value of one is the negative of the other AND the theta value of one is that plus pi of the other.
5) You will only satisfy this condition when cos(theta) = 1/2. Note you are satisfying two conditions here with cos(theta), the first one where r and theta values are the same, the second where they are opposite (and you should be able to see why theta is the opposite of pi + theta)
6) You should see by symmetry that you can find the area by finding 2 x another area, where theta goes from 0 to pi/2
7) From 0 to pi/3, you will find the area under the second curve, and from pi/3 to pi/2, you will find the area under the first curve.

It is difficult to determine exactly what went wrong without seeing the steps you took in your calculation. However, there are a few potential sources of error that could have led to an incorrect answer.

Firstly, it is important to make sure that the bounds of the integral are correct. In this case, the bounds should be from 0 to 2π (the full range of θ values for the given curves). It appears that you used the bounds 1.0471976 and 5.2359878, which are about 60 and 300 degrees, respectively. This may have led to an incorrect answer as the integral would not have covered the entire area.

Another potential source of error could be in the setup of the integral itself. It is important to carefully consider the limits and the functions being integrated. In this case, the functions being integrated should be the area between the two curves, which can be represented as (1/2)r^2. Therefore, the integral should be set up as follows:

\int_{0}^{2\pi} 1/2*(5*cos(\theta))^2 - 1/2*(3-1*cos(\theta))^2 d\theta

Additionally, make sure to use the correct form of the cosine function in your calculator. Some calculators may require the use of parentheses around the argument, so it should be entered as 5*cos(\theta) and 3-1*cos(\theta).

Overall, it is important to double check your bounds and setup of the integral, as well as the use of the correct form of the function in your calculator. If the issue persists, it may be helpful to consult with a tutor or instructor for further clarification.

## 1. What is the area of a polar curve region?

The area of a polar curve region refers to the amount of space enclosed by a polar curve on a polar coordinate plane. It is measured in square units.

## 2. How do you find the area of a polar curve region?

To find the area of a polar curve region, you can use the formula A = 1/2∫abr2(θ) dθ, where r(θ) is the polar equation of the curve and a and b are the starting and ending angles of the region.

## 3. What is the error when finding the area of a polar curve region?

The error when finding the area of a polar curve region refers to the difference between the actual area and the estimated area. This error can occur due to the use of approximation methods or inaccuracies in measurements.

## 4. How can you minimize the error when finding the area of a polar curve region?

To minimize the error when finding the area of a polar curve region, you can use smaller intervals and more precise approximation methods such as the Trapezoidal Rule or Simpson's Rule. Additionally, accurate measurements and calculations can also help reduce the error.

## 5. What are some real-life applications of finding the area of polar curve regions?

Finding the area of polar curve regions has various applications in fields such as physics, engineering, and architecture. For example, it can be used to calculate the surface area of a curved roof or the area of a rotating fan blade. It is also useful in calculating moments of inertia and centroids of objects with polar symmetry.

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