Aviation/Jet Fuels

  1. Astronuc

    Staff: Mentor

    I found some interesting stuff while doing some research and thought it might be useful.

    http://www.chevron.com/products/prodserv/fuels/bulletin/aviationfuel/toc.shtm
    http://www.chevron.com/products/prodserv/fuels/bulletin/aviationfuel/1_at_fuel_intro.shtm
    http://www.chevron.com/products/prodserv/fuels/bulletin/aviationfuel/4_at_fuel_comp.shtm

    Naphthalene (Aromatic) C10H8
    n-Dodecane (n-Paraffin) C12H26

    Hydrocarbon Missile Fuels

    -------------------
    Sinclair Oil Co. MSDS-
    SPECIFIC GRAVITY (g/ml): 0.77-0.84
    VAPOR DENSITY (air=1): 4.5
    -------------------

    Physical and Chemical Properties of Military Fuels - National Academies Press
    ===================================

    Toxicokinetics of Military Fuels
    It is not possible to fully describe the toxicokinetics of the individual volatile hydrocarbons that are present in JP-5, JP-8, and diesel fuel marine (DFM). However, toxicoldnetic data are available for the most toxic chemicals in each of the major classes of these fuels. For example, the n-paraffin group includes n-hexane, a human neurotoxicant. In the branched paraffin group, the chemical 2,2,4-trimethylpentane is thought to be responsible for the development of kidney-specific nephropathy and carcinogenicity in gasoline-exposed male rats. The aromatic group contains benzene (a human hematotoxicant and leukemogen) as well as toluene and the o-, m-, and p-xylenes. Finally, methoxyethanol, an important deicing additive in fuels, is a known developmental and reproductive toxicant. Thus, one of the major challenges in describing the behavior of the various hydrocarbons in these fuels is predicting the effect of other present hydrocarbons on the toxicokinetics of each highly toxic chemical.
     
  2. jcsd
  3. FredGarvin

    FredGarvin 5,087
    Science Advisor

    I have a copy of that Chevron book as well as CRC's handbook of aviation fuels on my desk. They are good sources that cover a wide range of topics. I am my company's designated fuels coordinator (lucky me). It is a rather interesting area. Too bad I'm not a chemist so I can delve into the really serious aspects of the area.

    I get the lovely opportunity to work with JETA, JP8 and JP10 on a daily basis. JETA and JP8 are very very similar and darned near the same fuel. There are a couple of slight differences between them. If anyone needs data or specs I'd be more than happy to help.
     
  4. Can you give me some information about jp-10 ?

    I have to do some homework about jp-10 , can you help me ? Thank you very much ! << e-mail address deleted by berkeman >>
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2008
  5. I am a jet engine mechanic in the military and our tech data says our MEC's specific gravity can be adjusted from .76-.85. We use the CF6-50C2 GE engines. My question is: by changing the setting of SG on the MEC, what are we actually changing/telling in the MEC? Because we are not actually changing the density of the JP-8. << e-mail address edited out by berkeman >>
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2008
  6. FredGarvin

    FredGarvin 5,087
    Science Advisor

    Essentially you are adjusting the energy content of the fuel. The fuel has a rating of X BTU/Lbm. By adjusting the SG you are really adjusting the density and thus the amount of energy available in the fuel.

    As a note, the specific gravity for a fuel is not a constant. It is within a range. So depending on the load of fuel, the SG will change, especially with the seasons.
     
  7. mgb_phys

    mgb_phys 8,952
    Science Advisor
    Homework Helper

    I stayed in a house with an AGA stove running on kerosene. It was just about impossible to light - it usually took an hour of playing around a box of matches.

    What is added to Jet-A to allow it to be ignited by an MP3 player, since I can't switch on electrical devices until inside the terminal because they are refuelling? This component only seems to be present in the UK - in the USA I can use a cell phone while the doors are open. :tongue:
     
    Last edited: Nov 13, 2007
  8. FredGarvin

    FredGarvin 5,087
    Science Advisor

    We used to run our tent stoves on JP8 which is the military equivalent to JET-A. The carbuerators in the burner were really finicky as I recall too.

    JET-A will not light with such a small energy content, especially in the liquid phase. For it to ignite in an engine, the igniters have a lot of energy and the fuel is atomized. You can drop a match in a pool of JET-A and it will snuff out the match. Of course, vapors are what one needs to be leery of. I think I have a study that was done to specify the minimum energy required for combustion of certain fuels. I'll see if I can find it.
     
  9. ok so we are changing the SG of the fuel. I always thought it was constant. How does it actually change the SG?
     
  10. FredGarvin

    FredGarvin 5,087
    Science Advisor

    You're not altering the fuel physically. If I understand what you are doing correctly, you are adjusting the fuel control for the engine, or am I mistaken?
     
  11. Yes all we are doing is adjusting the fuel control, especially when we deploy to the desert. The EGT gets too high because of the high TATs, so the book says to adjust accordingly.
     
  12. I HAVE A COPY OF THE EXXON JET FUEL BIBLE I CAN FORWARD YOU ON EMAIL.

    I AM WORKING ON A PROCESS TO CONVERT SOY BASED BIODIESEL TO COMMERCIAL JET FUEL.

    << e-mail address deleted by berkeman >>

    HRH
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Aug 18, 2008
  13. Does anyone know the dielectric constants for JP8, JP5 and Jet A???
     
  14. I am beginning a new research project concerning JP-10. Can you help me to inquire some data ? I can use everything you can throw at me concerning JP-10. So please really everything what you have on JP-10 (specs, ppt's, experimental data,...the whole lot) is very usefull for me.

    Thanks in advance!
    Maarten

    PS: I can't send private messages to you (otherwise I gave you my emailadres right away)
     
  15. We have approval from the Hazmat department to buy JP-10, but they say it will take them 10-17 days to get us a 55 gallon drum. Any suggestions for 1-2 day delivery sources?
     
  16. Hi~Fred. Do you happen to know the vapor pressure curve of JetA or JP8? Or Could be be so kind to recommend me some resources where i can probably find the curve? I'm now running experiments on JP8 and very much need to know the vapor pressure of it from 80C to 150 C.
    How could I contact you?
     
  17. Hi Maarten
    I am doing calculations for occupational exposure to Jet A and Jet A1 vapor (not the liquid phase) and need a research reference listing the range of molecuar weights for these jet fuels specifically. I understand they are "similar" to JP-8, but I need a reference for them specifically. A plus would be a reference listing Jet A, Jet A1 and JP-8. Thanks for any help you can provide via your data and specs. MROIH
     
  18. Hi Fred (Sorry Maarten)

    I am doing calculations for occupational exposure to Jet A and Jet A1 vapor (not the liquid phase) and need a research reference listing the range of molecuar weights for these jet fuels specifically. I understand they are "similar" to JP-8, but I need a reference for them specifically. A plus would be a reference listing Jet A, Jet A1 and JP-8. Thanks for any help you can provide via your data and specs. MROIH
     
  19. Hello MROIH,

    As per the CRC 635 handbook the "JP-8, per MIL-DTL-83133 is based on the civil fuel, Jet A-1, but requires specific additive packages. F-34 (JP-8) contains a static dissipator additive, a corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver additive and FSII additive. It may contain antioxidant and metal deactivator additives. F-35 contains a static dissipator additive, may contain antioxidant, corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver and metal deactivator additives, but does not contain fuel system icing inhibitor additive. F-37 is F-34 with a thermal stability additive package (JP-8+100). By adopting diesel and turbine-powered ground equipment and eliminating gasoline-powered ground vehicles, the U.S. military is enabling JP-8 to become a single fuel for the battlefield. The latest variant of the JP-8 grade is JP-8+100, which is JP-8 containing a thermal stability additive." (quote p.1-16)

    It does not answer to any of your questions but, I hope it could help.
     
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