When I throw a ball up vertically in the air, why does it rotate with the Earth around the Earth's axis? What force is acting horizontally above the Earth's surface to keep the ball above the point that I threw it as the Earth rotates as well as orbits the Sun? Does the Earth's rotation cause a gravitational torque or something like that? So just imagine someone on Mars looks through a telescope and sees me throw the ball up in the air. What forces would the Martian assume is keeping the ball above the point that I threw it?