I need to learn some abstract algebra, and it's pretty hard doing this on my own. Please help me.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

According to the definition, Ring is an algebraic structure with two binary operations , commonly called addition (+) and multiplication ( . ). We write (R,+, .). Some examples of rings are: (Z, +, .), (2Z, +, .), (Q, +, .)etc...

My problem is that where it is written (R,+,.), is + and . normal addition and multiplication respectively, or they're just some binary operations? If they were some binary operations, why they're saying that (Z, +, .) is a ring, without defining + and . ??

Sorry if my question were silly.

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# Homework Help: Basic questions about Rings

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