# B Battery and capacitors

#### Biker

(Look at the level above)

If you have a battery which is made by two plates having opposite charges ( constant E-Field), But outsidethe electric field doesnt cancel out. (The same applies to capacitors) not infinite

So the question is why doesn't an electron get affected by a really huge force when it gets so close form the positive or the negative terminal from the outside?

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#### CWatters

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Have you tried calculating the force?

#### Biker

Have you tried calculating the force?
Yep I did on really small scales it was huge around 10^-14 m from the center of an electron for example (Using coulomb's law) from just a single electron. The electric field from other electrons will add up too (not directly but by a component at least).

Still haven't learned how to integrate (This year I hope). What should be the work done by it?

#### Tazerfish

So the question is why doesn't an electron get affected by a really huge force when it gets so close form the positive or the negative terminal from the outside?
Can you explain your reasoning why it should be affected by a large force ?
The effect could AT MOST be as strong as if it was inside the capacitor.
You don't actually push any electrons that close together..
The other electrons get repelled and leave some room where the next electron can "sit".

I also think that it is more useful to think of charge as a continuum rather than discrete charges in this case since there are so ridiculously many electrons that they essentially behave like a continuum.

Oh and if you think "but the force between two bits of charge is steadily increasing as you move closer, how can the force remain almost constant"
The answer is : While the force from one bit of charge increases the angle of the force of the other charges becomes "worse" these effects cancel each other out.

#### Biker

Can you explain your reasoning why it should be affected by a large force ?
The effect could AT MOST be as strong as if it was inside the capacitor.
You don't actually push any electrons that close together..
The other electrons get repelled and leave some room where the next electron can "sit".

I also think that it is more useful to think of charge as a continuum rather than discrete charges in this case since there are so ridiculously many electrons that they essentially behave like a continuum.
For example, Assume that one plates is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. On that plate, it will gather a negative charge. How can the force of this electron or (charge)on a plate remove an electrons from its atom on the other plate where the force is so strong?

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#### Tazerfish

remove an electrons from its atom where the force is so strong?
I still don't get it. Why would an electron be "removed from its atom". We are in a conductor and probably a metal.
The electrons aren't bound to a single atom...
Could you please formulate an easily readable sentence ? Maybe consider making a diagram.
This really doesn't make much sense to me.
Sorry

#### CWatters

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I think what Biker means is...

Assume that one plate of a capacitor is connected to the negative terminal of a battery and the other plate is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. The negative plate will gather a negative charge. How can an electron (E1) on the negative plate repel a second electron (E2) from the positive plate? Surely the force holding E2 to it's atom is stronger than the force between E1 and E2 because it's very much closer to it's atom than it is to E1?

#### CWatters

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Gold Member
The answer is that the atom of the positive plate have some fixed electrons as well as protons.

http://www.chemistry.uoguelph.ca/educmat/atomdata/bindener/elecbind.htm

An electron, which is negatively charged, is attracted to the nucleus of an atom because of the positive charge that is there. The amount of energy that is required to be given to the electron to pull it away from this attractive (Coulombic) force is called the binding energy. For the hydrogen atom, this is an exactly solvable problem (both at the non-relativistic level -the Schršdinger equation- and at the relativistic level -the Dirac equation). However, when more than one electron is present in orbit around a nucleus one must further consider the electrostatic repulsion which arises between the electrons. Because of this additional repulsion, the energy one needs to give a certain electron to remove it from the nucleus is now less than would be needed otherwise. This electron-electron repulsion makes the problem unsolvable analytically. However, many effective and accurate numerical methods have been developed to calculate the binding energies including these additional terms.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal

Atoms of metals readily lose their outer shell electrons, resulting in a free flowing cloud of electrons within their otherwise solid arrangement. This provides the ability of metallic substances to easily transmit heat and electricity.

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