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I Big freeze question?

  1. Jul 3, 2016 #1
    How can the big freeze be a viable option for the end of the universe?

    The big freeze suggests that one day the universe will expand to such a large size that stars will fuse all the existing hydrogen in the universe and just leave black holes and other remnants behind, eventually reaching maximum entropy, resulting in a cold and dark universe.

    But quantum mechanics states that subatomic particles always pop in and out of existence due to vibrating strings through 11-dimensional hyperspace. The fact of that alone should tell us that hydrogen atoms will NEVER cease to exist, since they are just made up of a simple combination of protons, neutrons and electrons, which are always being created.

    I'm very confused with this. Both theories seem to contradict each other, yet most scientists are at general consensus with each of them. Dr. Michio Kaku, Co-founder of m-theory even agrees with the big freeze.
  2. jcsd
  3. Jul 3, 2016 #2


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    Virtual particles are being created and destroyed constantly. They pop into existence as opposite pairs, then immediately annihilate. The net result is zero. They don't stick around long enough to gravitationally interact.
  4. Jul 3, 2016 #3
    Yes, but what about virtual particles becoming real through a process called "Hawking radiation"? I just don't understand how there can ever be a limit to the production of atoms, otherwise our universe would not exist in the first place. Unless I do not understand the whole concept, then please explain.
  5. Jul 3, 2016 #4


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    Some of your assumptions are wrong. Have a look at this[/PLAIN] [Broken] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang_nucleosynthesis[/URL] [Broken]
    Last edited by a moderator: May 8, 2017
  6. Jul 3, 2016 #5


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    Quantum Mechanics does not use extra dimensions. This sounds like string theory, which isn't an accepted theory at the moment due to a lack of clear evidence supporting it. QM uses the standard 3 spatial and 1 time dimensions we're all used to.

    Hawking radiation produces particles, but reduces the mass of the black hole in the process. After a very long time all black holes in the universe will evaporate and there will no longer be any hawking radiation.
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