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- How the volume of blood that is circulating is calculated? Is it an approximation or can one really find out the actual volume of blood in our body?

We know that we humans have roughly 5 liters of blood circulating in our body. The volume also may be varying. We also know that its volume is tightly regulated and multiple organs are involved in it.

My question is, how we calculated that we have 5 liters of blood? Is it an approximation or did they have any study/research and found out a mechanism to measure and arrived at the approximate figure of 5 liters? Can the actual volume of blood be measured?

How do the doctors diagnose the low and high volume of blood?

My question is, how we calculated that we have 5 liters of blood? Is it an approximation or did they have any study/research and found out a mechanism to measure and arrived at the approximate figure of 5 liters? Can the actual volume of blood be measured?

How do the doctors diagnose the low and high volume of blood?