Building a 365kJ Capacitor Bank for Experiments | Abiscus.com

In summary: Hz1. Stack capacitors in series2. Use a voltage doubler like the Cockroft-Walton3. Use a high voltage capacitor in a microwave oven
  • #1
sepulker
16
0
I am pursuing a degree in Electrical Engineering with a minor in Physics, and I am almost done with my 4th out of 5 years ar Northeastern University (go SOX!) in Boston. I have a solid grasp of most theories related to the field.

However, exploiting my knowledge upon a physical device for the first time is different from using a pencil and a piece of paper. I am sure anyone will agree that there is no shame in double-checking yourself and questioning others with more experience.

I plan to begin experimenting with very high currents, and to do this I would like to build a capacitor bank. By luck I already have two Mallory 1800MF 450V capable electrolytic capacitors. Obviously, the energy I could store in these guys seems to be: (1/2)*(1.8)*(2)*(450)^2 which leads to 364.5kJ!

This seems like an awful lot of power, and also seems fansastically dangerous!

I plan on charging the bank with a rectified transformer (probably a microwave transformer since they are free from the junk yard) under a voltage divider for 450V. I will add safety devices like a complete 1/4inch plastic housing, bleeder resistors, and a voltage monitor, plus a huge red light that warns me not to go near the thing.

A few questions (since I have never made something like this before)

1. Is 364.5kJ correct?
2. What are the not-so-obvious dangers?
3. What can I use to discharge it safely?
4. Anything else that I should know/research before attempting this?
5. Once it's working, what devices can I use it for?
6. How would a Cockroft Walton voltage mult. config. affect energy and such?


If you would like to check out my website, it contains a lot of projects I have completed in the past:



www.abiscus.com


Thank you for your time!
-Nate
 
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  • #2
Are you certain that its not microfarads instead of milifarads?
 
  • #3
Yeah, they definitely say 1800MF (and not 1800UF)
 
  • #4
That doesn't mean that it isn't microfarads. I have seen caps printed that way. Physically they would need to be HUGE in order to have a capacity that large at a high voltage.
 
  • #5
Nate i have to ask , how large are they physically??
dimentions in inches?
 
  • #6
They are probably about 8 inches tall with a diameter of about 4 inches (which would make a lot more sense for a smaller capacitance)

So industry standards aren't as concrete as I thought?... some companies use an "M" and some use a "U" for microfarads?
 
  • #7
If you still aren't sure why not just charge it up and measure the charge/discharge time? You don't have to charge it up to full voltage.
 
  • #8
Because I'm on vacation and I don't have them with me haha.

But you answered my question about the markings. Now I am almost 100% sure theyre microfarads. Thanks

SIDE QUESTION:
I don't want to spend time doing the analysis...

What are the differences in charging time, energy, etc of Cockroft-Walton voltage doubling configurations compared to other methods?
 
  • #9
Yeah, the largest capacitor I've ever seen sold is 5000 Farads, and it was quite expensive (since it was meant for industrial use).
 
  • #10
You also made a mistake with the formula 1/2CV^2..
unless i am mistaken your new Joule calculation is .5(0.0018)(450)^2 = 182.25 J
 
  • #11
you have some nice projects on your website sepulker; I like the night vision project in particular.
 
  • #12
willib said:
You also made a mistake with the formula 1/2CV^2..
unless i am mistaken your new Joule calculation is .5(0.0018)(450)^2 = 182.25 J

He has two caps (In parallel I presume) not one.
 
  • #13
Right, I was assuming two.

I have another question:
I want to increase the maximum voltage I can put into the bank. Assuming all capacitors are the same model... is it healthier to:

1. Stack capacitors in series
2. Use a voltage doubler like the Cockroft-Walton

It would be interesting to see the pros and cons
 
  • #14
sepulker said:
Right, I was assuming two.

I have another question:
I want to increase the maximum voltage I can put into the bank. Assuming all capacitors are the same model... is it healthier to:

1. Stack capacitors in series
2. Use a voltage doubler like the Cockroft-Walton

It would be interesting to see the pros and cons
in my opinion , for raw power , stack them , besides the current output of the Cockroft-Walton and its variations is low, on the order of 100mA , although they do talk about one that looks like it could produce more current , it has sort of a complex triggering scheme because it doesn't use P channel FETS because at the time it was written they were more expensive than they are now.. http://murray.newcastle.edu.au/users/students/1999/c9221792/doubler.htm your doubler circuit
how much voltage are you looking to make?
Power fets are only rated for around one hundred volts or so , so stacking them would be your only choice..
 
Last edited by a moderator:
  • #15
did you know that there are high voltage capacitors in microwave ovens , on the order of 2100V ..
@ 1.1uF that comes to 2.4255 Joules..
 
  • #16
On Ebay, I found Nippon Chemi-Con capacitors rated at 400V 3600UF. The guy has 60 available. So let's see... each one can hold 288J each. If I buy 10 and split the stack, that's 9000UF at 800V (i think that's right?) at around 2.9kJ. I can stack it more for a better approach to a spark gap... actually...

What would be better for switching the current? A spark gap? Thyristor SCR, Thyratron? (Maybe I don't have to stack them)

If I assume my load is a coil and it has a impedance low enough to allow a fast pulse, which should be enough energy to crush a soda can, right?

This would be perfect for my demonstration.
 

Related to Building a 365kJ Capacitor Bank for Experiments | Abiscus.com

1. What is a capacitor bank and how does it work?

A capacitor bank is a collection of capacitors connected in parallel to store electrical energy. When connected to a power source, the capacitors charge up and store electrical energy. This stored energy can then be released in a controlled manner to power experiments or devices.

2. How much energy can a 365kJ capacitor bank store?

A capacitor bank's energy storage capacity depends on the individual capacitors used and the number of capacitors connected in parallel. A 365kJ capacitor bank can store up to 365 kilojoules of energy, which is equivalent to 101 watt-hours or enough to power a 100-watt lightbulb for about an hour.

3. What materials are needed to build a 365kJ capacitor bank?

The main components needed to build a 365kJ capacitor bank include capacitors, a power source, a charging circuit, and a discharge circuit. Additional materials such as wires, connectors, and a casing may also be required for the construction process.

4. What types of experiments can be conducted with a 365kJ capacitor bank?

A 365kJ capacitor bank can be used to power a wide range of experiments in various fields such as physics, chemistry, and engineering. It can be used to generate high-voltage discharges, create strong magnetic fields, or power electric motors and circuits for testing purposes.

5. Are there any safety concerns when working with a 365kJ capacitor bank?

Yes, there are safety precautions that should be taken when working with a high-energy capacitor bank. These include using proper insulation and grounding, handling capacitors with care, and following the recommended charging and discharging procedures. It is important to educate oneself on electrical safety before attempting to build and use a 365kJ capacitor bank.

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