# Calculate Temperature for White to Grey Tin Conversion | Thermodynamic Data

• physicsss
In summary, the temperature at which white tin will convert into grey tin is unknown, and may not even be within some millennia.
physicsss
Based on thermodynamic data found in your textbook, calculate the temperature at which white tin will convert into grey tin.

I have no idea how to do this...what equation should I use?

Ah, the "tin pest"... I don't know for sure how to do it, but I think you might have better luck in getting help if you ask the question in the materials engineering forum.

To me it sounds like one would need more than thermodynamic data. The phase might be metastable at certain temperatures, i.e. thermodynamically white tin should convert to grey tin, but the kinetics are not sufficient for the conversion.
Wow, I really wouldn't know how to tackle this one. Do notify us when you know more ;)

what's the reaction pertaining to this problem?

Gray Sn is an allotrope of Sn which is more stable than white Sn at lower temperatures. Actually, at room temp, white Sn is slowly turning into gray, though the process is extremely slow. There's a case I read about involving a old pipe-organ in Germany, which had pipes made of Sn that crumbled (became gray Sn) during a very cold winter day. Also, pewter, which is an alloy of Sn, should be protected from low temperatures. "Mellor's Modern Inorganic Chemistry" has info on this so-called "tin pest."

Interesting. Well, one general way to solve this problem is to use Gibb's free energy, find the temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous, when free energy equals 0. Zero indicates no overall reaction, while anything below indicates an overall reaction. You can either find the net free energy by subtracting the free energy of the reactant from the product.

Although there may be a more mathematically elegant way to do this.

GCT said:
Well, one general way to solve this problem is to use Gibb's free energy, find the temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous, when free energy equals 0.

OK, if the formulation "will convert to grey tin" should be interpreted as over time, maybe not even within some millennia, but it will happen, then the procedure sounds right and you need only thermodynamical data.

## 1. What is the process of calculating temperature for white to grey tin conversion?

The process of calculating temperature for white to grey tin conversion involves using thermodynamic data to determine the temperature at which the conversion from white tin to grey tin occurs. This data includes factors such as enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy.

## 2. What is the significance of calculating temperature for white to grey tin conversion?

The significance of calculating temperature for white to grey tin conversion lies in understanding the phase transition of tin and how it affects its properties. This information is crucial in industries that use tin, such as electronics and metallurgy, as it helps in predicting and controlling the behavior of tin at different temperatures.

## 3. How is thermodynamic data used in the calculation process?

Thermodynamic data, specifically enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy, are used to determine the equilibrium temperature at which the conversion from white tin to grey tin occurs. These values are calculated using equations such as the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the Van't Hoff equation.

## 4. What are the limitations of using thermodynamic data to calculate temperature for white to grey tin conversion?

One limitation of using thermodynamic data is that it assumes ideal conditions, which may not always be the case in real-life scenarios. Other factors such as impurities, external pressure, and rate of heating can also affect the conversion temperature. Therefore, the calculated temperature may not always be accurate.

## 5. Can the same process be applied for calculating temperature for other phase transitions?

Yes, the same principles and equations used for calculating temperature for white to grey tin conversion can be applied to other phase transitions as well. However, the specific thermodynamic data and equations used may vary depending on the substance and its properties.

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