1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I need to complete a mathematical model of a shock absorber, not in the frequency sense but by calculating the damping force due to the resistance in the valves. For an orifice there seems to be two ways of calculating the force/pressure drop 1). Discharge coefficient, this results a value for pressure drop. I am having a hard time understanding whether pressure drop is the pressure difference required to accelerate the liquid to a higher velocity (in the smaller area) or whether it is due to the friction in the orifice. For example if i wanted to calculate the damper force and had two orifices in series, P1 being pressure before orifice 1, P2 being the pressure in between the two orifices and P3 being the pressure after third orifice. Would I have to work backwards from P3 to find the pressure at the piston face (P1)? by calculating pressure drop from p2 - p3 then p1 - p2. Then sum all the pressure drops to find the total piston face pressure? 2). Piple loss mehod Is pressure drop from 1). the same as 'pipe friction losses' or head loss? Do i need to sum head loss with the pressure required to accelerate the fluid through the orifice ? Thank you in advance! 2. Relevant equations 3. The attempt at a solution Many thesis' analyse and I get more and more confused about the concept.