Hi, I am having a little trouble with how to go about calculating the axial loads being developed in a Wells Turbine. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wells_turbine I am looking at OWC's (Oscillating Water Columns) in particular The Wells Turbine is designed to rotate in the same direction regardless of the direction of the air flowing across it, which in this case alternates . There are numerous papers out there, delving into efficiencies depending on blade profiles and guide vane angles, all using CFD to model the performance but none approach the problem of thrust loading on the shaft. In the particular turbine I am analysing, there are no guide vanes and over time the motor and bearings are experiencing wear and tear because of the oscillating thrust loads generated by Cantilever turbine shaft. I am hoping there is a way to calculate the axial loads by hand rather than by using CFD. Could it be done using force vector triangles? Any advice/help or the name of book/academic paper which could be helpful would be greatly appreciated. I have been looking myself but have failed to find anything concrete relating to this.