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Can any one help me with these equations?

  1. Nov 6, 2013 #1
    Problem number 1:
    How the author has achieved expression 7 and 8 by using 6?


    KqifFPn.png

    Problem number 2:
    How the author has achieved expression 13,14 and 15 by using 12?


    jyMcl9H.png

    Thanks in advance
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Nov 7, 2013 #2

    mfb

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    2016 Award

    Staff: Mentor

    Just arithmetics. Divide (6) by B*η, put both sides in an exponent (2^...), simplify, rename γ to γthD.
    To get (8), replace R by 2R.

    I think the second problem needs some formulas not given in the image.
     
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